ENGINEERING CODE

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
MINISTRY OF RAILWAYS
(RAILWAY BOARD)

Indian Railways
Code For The Engineering Department
(Third Re-print)
1999

(Embodying All Correction Slips issued upto45, dated16.07.08) 

CHAPTER I

ORGANISATION AND ADMINISTRATION
 

101

An Overview

102

Organisational Structure of Open line Organisation

110

CAO / Const. & Chief Engineer (Construction)

116

Executive and Accounts Officers

126

Divisional Officers

138

Sub-Divisions

140

Section Officers (Accounts)

143

Transfer of Charge

147

Incumbency Register

CHAPTER II

MODES OF INVESTIGATION OF RAILWAY PROJECTS
 

201

Project Development Process

202

Feasibility Studies

203

Techno Economic Survey

204

Classification of Surveys

205

Decision to undertake Survey

206

Preliminary Investigation

209

Terms of Reference

210

Categories of lines

214

scope of Survey Operations

215

alignment

216

Position of Curves

217

Degree of Curvature

218

Transition Curves

220

Gradients

 221 Vertical Curves
222

Alternative alignments

223

Plane Table Survey

224

RiversImportant Rivers

226

High Flood Levels

227

Diversion of rivers

228

Protection Works

229

Construction of new railway bridges

230

Provision of traction over head equipment structures on new bridges

231

Station Sites

233

Junction Arrangements

234

Survey for the provision of additional lines

237

Gauge Conversion Surveys

243

Railway Electrification Surveys

249

Field Books

250

Notes to be made in the field

251

The Operations of a Reconnaissance Survey

253

General Instructions Notification in Local Gazette

254

Damage to property and Trespass

255

Compensation for damage

256

Religious edifices etc.

257

Interference with pre-existing Railways, Roads, Canals etc

259

Military Requirements

267 Quarterly Progress Report
268

Feasibility Studies

^Top

CHAPTER III

TRAFFIC SURVEY

301

Definition of Traffic Survey

302

Objects of Traffic Survey

304

Terms of Reference

305

Field Work

307

Methodology to be adopted in the assessment of traffic prospects and traffic forecasting

309

Estimate of gross earnings of a New line Project

310

Coaching earnings

316

Assessment of Goods Traffic and Earnings of a New Line Project

328

Marshalling yards

329 Assessment of Working Expenses
334

Line Capacity Works Analysis of Existing Capacity

337

Working out financial savings

340  Provision of rolling stock
342

Technique of financial appraisal of railway projects

344

Residual Value

345

Time span for appraisal

346

Project Viability

347

Traffic Survey Report

349

Documentation of data

350.

Covering Note

^Top

CHAPTER IV

ENGINEERING SURVEY RECONNAISSANCE -  PRELIMINARY AND FINAL LOCATION SURVEYS

 

401

Reconnaissance Survey Terms of Reference

402

field Work

404 Report
405 Estimate
406

Maps

407 Covering Note
408

Preliminary Surveys Terms of Reference

409

field Work

412 Report
413 Estimate
417

Maps and Plans

419

Covering Note

420

Final Location Survey Terms of Reference

421

Field Works

426

Notes to be made in the Field

427

The Centre Line

429

Curves

432

Transition Curves .

434

Gradient

437

Compensation for curves on Gradients

438

Bench Marks

440

Datum for Levels

441

Compass Bearings

443

Plans, Sections and Designs for Works

449

Index Plan and Section

450

The Index Plan

451

The Index Section

452

Detailed Plan and Section

453

The Plan

458

The section

467

Plans and Cross Sections of Rivers

468

Plans of Station Yards

471

Plans of Junction Arrangements

473

Detailed Drawings of Structures etc. .

^Top

CHAPTER V

ENGINEERING SURVEYS PROJECT REPORT, TECHNO ECONOMIC SURVEY REPORT AND FEASIBILITY REPORT

501

Preamble

502

Project Report

503

Introduction

507

Characteristics of the Projects Area

508

Standards of Construction

523

Route Selection

525

Project Engineering Estimation of Cost and Construction Schedule

539

Statistical Information

540

Estimation of cost

541

Investment Schedule

543

Construction Programme

545

Covering Note

546

Arrangement of Documents

547

Tabulated Details Curve Abstract

548

Gradient Abstract

549

Bridge Abstract

550

Important Bridges

551

Station Machinery

552

Station and Station Sites

553

Detailed Estimates

554

Abstract Cost of the Project

555

Techno Economics Survey Reports

557

Introduction

558

Traffic Projection

560

Analysis of Existing Capacity

561

Possibility of Optimisation of Existing Facilities

562

Analysis of Alternatives

563

Characteristics of Project Area

564

Standards of Construction

565

Route Selection/Project Description

566

Project Description Site

567

Environment

568

Facilities to be provided

569

Equipment and Construction requirements

570

Input requirements

571

Labour and Management Requirement

572

Special Problems

573

Project Engineering

574

Cost Phasing and Investment Schedule

575

Financial Appraisal

576.

Feasibility Reports

^Top

CHAPTER VI

INVESTMENT PLANNING AND WORKS BUDGET
Investment Planning and Works Programme Section

601

Investment Planning and Works Programme - General

603

Advance Planning

607

Scrutiny of Schemes before preparation of Preliminary Works Programme

609

Preparation of Preliminary Works Programme

622

Integrated Budget

623 Final Works Programme

624

Works Budget

625

Demand for Works Grant

626

Financing of Works Budget

628

Distribution of Funds by Railway Board

632

General Rules on Budget

633.

Planning for Survey

^Top

CHAPTER VII
ESTIMATES

701

Kinds of Estimates

702

The Abstract Estimate

703

Detailed Estimates

704

The Statement showing Details of Estimated Cost of Works

705

Details of Cost of Permanent Way Material

706

The outer sheet of Open Line Estimates

708

Revised Estimate

709

The Project Abstract Estimate

710

The Construction Estimate

712

Estimate of Junction Arrangements

713

Completion Estimate

714

Estimate for Railway Project Scope

716

Rolling Stock Estimate

717

Indirect charges

718

Commencement of Construction

720

Estimates of Open Line Works Detailed Estimates in support of Abstract Estimate

722

Report and Justification

724

Specification

726

Rates

727

Provision for contingencies

729

Schedule of Rates

730

Standard Specification

731

Covering Letter for Estimates

732

Estimates for Deposit Works

736

General Rules Applicable to AII Estimates Design and Execution

738

Works executed on Contract

739

Units of Measurements

740

Units of Rate

741

Drawing

742

Verification of Estimate

743

Propriety of Expenditure

744

Incidence and Classification of Charges

748

Competency of Sanction

750

Grouping of Works

751

Subsidiary points to be checked

752

Certificate of Accounts Verification

755

Sanction to Estimate

756

Currency of Sanction

758

Scope of the sanction to an Estimate

759.

Register of Estimates

^Top

CHAPTER VIII

RULES FOR THE ACQUISITION OF LAND
 

801

Applicability

802

How Land is acquired

803

Responsibility of Railway Administration

804

Necessity for Land

805 Reasonableness of price

806

Title to Land

807

Management of Land

808

Private Negotiation

811

Transfer of Land and Buildings between Union and State Governments

812

Market Value of Land

813

Acquisition of Land in Coal Mining Areas

814

Rights to mines and minerals in areas acquired by or on behalf of the Central Government

815

Riparian Rights

816

Occupation of Land, Temporary and Permanent

817

Classification of Railway Land

819

Permanent Land

820

Temporary Land

821

Extent of Land to be acquired

829

General Arrangement, side width etc.,

837

Land Plans and Schedules

851

Incidence of the cost of land

853

Establishment charges

855

Contingent charges

856

Acquisition of land for quarrying purposes

857.

Acquisition of Forest Land

^Top

CHAPTER IX

PROCEDURE FOR THE ACQUISITION OF LAND
 

901

Application for Land

906

Revenue Officer's Estimate of Cost of Land Acquisition

910

Railway Administration's Land Estimate

911

Sanction to Land Estimates

913

Land to be acquired only for sanctioned works and bonafide Railway purposes

915

Procedure after the Land Acquisition is put into force Acquisition

916

Valuation of Land for purposes of Award

918 Taking possession

920

Excess over Sanctioned Estimates

921

Completion Report

924

Disbursements by Land Acquisition Officers

925

Procedure for Special Land Acquisition Officers appointed under the Act

931

The Award

934

Payment of Compensation

935

Receipt for Direct Payments

936

Civil Court Deposits

938

Payment by cheques

939

Payments after the Special Officer is relieved of his duties

940

The Award

942

Payment of Compensation

944

Procedure when no money compensation is paid

945

Accounts

947

Internal check of land charges

950

 Rules relating to the Acquisition of Land

956

Rules relating to the restrictions on the use of Land

959

 Land for Assisted sidings

960.

Legal Proceedings

^Top

CHAPTER X

THE CUSTODY, MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF LAND
 

1001

Position of Land under the Constitution

1002

Determination of dispute as to titles

1003

Transfer of Land or Buildings from Railways to another Department of Government

1004

Custody of Land what custody implies

1005

Litigation

1007

Supplementary Rules relating to Custody of Land

1008

Management of Land

1009

Terms of Management

1010

Responsibility for Management

1011

Management by State Government

1012

Management by Station Committees

1013

Method of Management

1020

Lease and License

1021

Terms of Lease Agreement and Licenses

1022

Licensing of Land to Railway Staff

1023

License fee for Railway Land licensed to private parties

1024

Periodical revision of rent for Railway Land licensed to private parties

1025

Security deposit in the case of Railway Land licensed to outsiders

1028

Railways Land licensed to other Government Departments

1029

Licensing of Railway Land to Defence Department

1030

Licensing of Railway Land for religious purpose

1031

Licensing of land for schools to be opened by State Government in Railway Colonies

1032

License Form

1034

Allocation of receipts from land

1035

Disposal of land not required by Railway

1037

Land eligible for disposal

1038

Disposal of land eligible for disposal

1039

Procedure for disposal

1041

Powers of sanction

1042

Refund of Capitalised value of land revenue

1043

Adjustment of sale proceeds

1044

Completion of sale or transfer

1045

Miscellaneous Exchange of Railway Land

1046

Transfer of Land to or from the Military Authorities

1047

Demarcation of land

1049

Eviction of unauthorised occupants

1050

Forms of notices and orders

1051

Manner of service of notices and orders

1052

Holding of enquiries

1053

Transfer of pending proceedings

1054

Manner of taking possession of public premises

1055

Assessment of damages

1056

Procedure in appeals

1057

Functioning of Estate Officers

^Top

CHAPTER XI
THE EXECUTION OF WORKS

 

1101

Commencement of Works

1103

Works started on urgency certificates

1108

Expedition in executing works

1109

Material Modifications

1113

Sanctions to Material Modifications

1114

Minor Modifications

1115

Agencies for executing works

1117

Responsibility of Executive Engineers

1118

Planning of works

1119

Entertainment of Temporary and Works Establishments

1120

Temporary Establishment

1121

Works Establishment

1122

Field Book of Sub-ordinates

1123

Order Book

1124

Record of Important Structures

1125

General Instructions

1133

Execution of Deposit Works

1135

Progress Report on Works

1136

Excess over Estimates

1137

Departmental charges

1138

remission of Departmental charges

1140

Departmental charges on joint works

^Top

CHAPTER XII

CONTRACTS FOR WORKS

1201

Awarding of Contracts Definition of Contract

1202

Agency of Contractor

1203

Works Contract

1204

Forms of Works Contracts

1205

Lump sum contracts

1207

Schedule contract

1208

Piece work contract

1209

Contracts for Zone works and Engineering materials

1210

Tender system

1211

Circumstances when tenders need not be called

1212

Classes of Tenders

1213

Open tender system

1214

Limited tender system

1215

List of approved contractors

1217

Principals to be observed in framing contract agreements

1218

Documents forming integral part of contracts

1219

Specification and drawings

1220

Conditions of contract

1221

Use of standard conditions

1222

Unusual conditions

1224

Lawful consideration

1226

Issue of Railway materials

1227

Issue of tools and plants to contractors

1230

Rates

1232

Quantities

1233

Nomenclature

1235

Tender forms

1236

Tenders involving foreign exchange

1238

Tender notices

1240

Sale of Tender Forms

1241

Earnest Money

1244

Security Deposit

1245

Standing Earnest Money

1246

Forms in which earnest money and security deposit is acceptable

1247

Tenders received by post

1248

Opening of tenders

1249

Precautions to be observed while opening tenders

1251

Delayed and Late Tenders

1253

Brief Notes for the Tender Committee

1254

Scrutiny by the Accounts Department

1255

Constitution of Tender Committee

1256

Acceptance of tender

1257

Development orders

1258

Agreement Forms

1259

Signing of agreements

1260

Execution of contract prior to commencement of works or supplies

1261

Refund of earnest money

1262

Management of contracts Agreements and Work Orders

1264

Advances to contractors

1265

Variation of contract conditions

1266

Extension of completion period

1267

Liquidated Damages

1268

Variation in quantity of works during the execution of work

1269

Materials issued to contractors

1270

Termination of contract

1271

Enforcement of contract conditions

1272

Stamp Duty

1273

Responsibility of Railway Officials

1274

Arbitration

1275

Arbitration Awards

1276

Acceptance of Arbitration Awards

1277

Legal Proceedings

1278

Custody of Security of Deposits

1279.

Applicability of Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act

^Top

CHAPTER XIII

INITIAL RECORDS

1301

Initial Records of the Engineering Department

1302

Muster Sheets

1303

Register of Wages

1304

Muster Roll and Labour Pay Sheet

1310

Unpaid Wages

1313

Payment to Suppliers and Contractors Record of Measurements

1315

Recording of Measurements

1322

Instructions for maintenance of Measurement Books

1327

Standard Measurements

1328

Measurements based on Standard Type Drawings

1330

Measurements for lump-sum Contract

1331

Approximate Measurements

1332

Measurements of Ballast Train Work

1333

The measurement of ballast

1336

Petty Contract Bill

1337

The Running on Account Bill

1338

The Final Bill

1339

The Hand Receipt

1340

Preparation of Contractor's Bills

1342

Other Miscellaneous Payments

1343

Bills for Stores Purchased

1344

Pay Order

1345

General Rules

1354.

Check of Initial Record

^Top
CHAPTER XIV

INITIAL ACCOUNT OF REVENUE AND WORKS EXPENDITURE

1401

Introduction

1403

cash Payments Imprest

1405

Withdrawal from station earnings

1406

Receipt of cash

1407

Stores General

1408

Imprest stores

1413

Surplus stores

1414

Accounts and Returns of Imprest and Surplus Stores

1416

Day Book

1417

Monthly Stores Return

1418

Check of Monthly Stores Return

1420

Pricing of Monthly Stores Return

1421

Monthly Abstract of Receipts and issues

1422

Allocation Summary

1424

Divisional Balance Register of Stores

1425

Half-yearly Review of Imprest and Surplus Stores

1428

Departmental Stock verification of Stores Balances

1429

Surplus materials held on line

1434

Charged Off stores

1435

Consumable and Petty Stores

1436

Stores obtained for specific works materials at site

1441

Materials at site of works for which Accounts are kept by sub-heads in the Register of Works

1443

Engineering Stores Depots

1446

Quarterly Materials at site returns

1447

The check of materials at site return

1448

Accountal in the Register of Works

1450

Verification of materials at site

1451

Review of materials at site

1452

Materials at site of works for which Accounts are not kept by sub-heads in the Register of Works

1453 Monthly return

1454

Check of Excess Materials Return

1455

Accountal in the Register of Works

1456

Tools and Plant for Maintenance

1458

Tools Machinery and Instruments procured for Works

1460

Adjustments

1461

Adjustment Memo

1463

Adjustment Bills

1465

Carriage Bill

1466

Ballast Train Returns

1468

Departmental Registers - Registers maintained in the Accounts Office

1469

Revenue Allocation Register

1471

Reconciliation of Allocation Registers with General Books

1472

Register of Works

1473

Single set of Works Registers

1476

Value of materials received in advance of payment to contractors

1477

Advance payment to suppliers before receipt of materials

1480

Reconciliation of Register of works with General Books

1481

Register of Works for Deposit Works

1482

Register of Works for New Minor Works

1483

Contractor's Ledger

1484

Closing of Contractor's Accounts

1485.

Prompt settlement of contractor's claims

^Top

CHAPTER XV

EXPENDITURE AND BUDGETARY CONTROL
Responsibility with regard to expenditure

1501

General Rules on Budget

1502

Responsibility with regard to expenditure

1505

Mixed-works

1506 Budgetary control over revenue demands

1508

Budgetary control over expenditure on Acquisition Construction and Replacement

1509

Budgetary Reviews

1510

Exchequer Control

1511

Implementation of Exchequer Control

1512

Information to be furnished by Executive Officers

1513

Limitation of Exchequer Control

1514

Watch on Credit or Recoveries

1515

Expenditure control

1516

Method of exercising control over expenditure

1517

use of Works Register

1518

Progress Report cum Financial Review

1519.

Preparation of Progress Report cum Financial Review

^Top

CHAPTER XVI

COMMISSIONING OF RAILWAY PROJECTS
Commissioning of new lines

1601

Commissioning of New Lines-opening for Goods Traffic

1602

Arrangements to be made before opening of line to goods traffic

1603

Responsibility of the Construction Engineer

1604

incidence of Operating Expenses and Earnings

1605

Opening for Passenger Traffic

1606

Fixing date for opening for Passenger Traffic

1609

Handing over of New Lines to Open Line

1610

Allocation of Maintenance charges

1611

Commissioning of Doubling Projects

1615

Commissioning of gauge conversion Projects

1616

Commissioning of other Railway Projects

1617.

Taking over by Open Line

^Top

CHAPTER XVIl

COMPLETION OF RAILWAY PROJECTS

Projects costing over rupees one crore

1701

Completion Estimates

1702

Date of opening

1704

Closing the Accounts of a Project

1705

Project Completion Report

1706

Form of Completion Report

1707

Financial Prospects

1708

Completion of Works

1712

Accounts Verification of Completion Reports

1713

Completion report of Unfinished Works

1714

Completion Statements

1715

Expeditious Closing of Accounts of Works

1716

Entry in the Register of Works

1717

Adjustment of charges and credits relating to completed works

1719

Completion Report for Land

1720.

Docketting investment cost, Assets Register

^Top

CHAPTER XVIII

MISCELLANEOUS WORKS
Works required for Defence Purposes

1801

Works required for Defence Purposes

1802

Strategic Lines

1803

Commercial Line

1805

Defence Works

1808

Roadways over Railway Bridges

1813

Footways over Railway Bridges

1814

level Crossings Road over and under bridges

1820

Surveys undertaken for private parties

1822

Assisted sidings scope

1823

Terms and Conditions

1825

Deposit towards preliminary expenses

1826

Incidence of Cost

1827.

Interest and Maintenance of Assisted Sidings

1828.

Execution of Private and Assisted siding

1829

Departmental Charges

1830

Deposit of Estimated Cost

1831

Siding Charges

1832

Local Taxes

1833

Determination of the Agreement

1835

Construction of Branch or Extension to Siding

1836

Modification of Siding Charges

1837

Interest on amounts overdue

1838

Breach of Agreement

1839

Siding not in use

1840

Siding Register

1841

Recovery of Siding Charges

1842

Use of Land Surplus to the Requirement of Siding

1843

Deposit Works Definition

1844

Procedure for undertaking Deposit Works

1845

Cost of Plans and Estimates

1846

Funds for Works of other Government Departments

1847

Booking of Expenditure

1848

Register of Works for Deposit Works

1849

Executive Engineer's Review

1850

Completion of Deposit Works

1851

Maintenance of Deposit Works

1852

Register of Deposit Works

1853

Recovery of Maintenance and other Charges

1854

General Interest during construction

1855.

Railway owned stone or ballast quarries General Rules

^Top

CHAPTER XIX

BUILDINGS AND RENTS
Staff Quarters

1901

Staff Quarters Conditions for provision of staff quarters

1902

Classification of Quarters

1903

Scale of Accommodation for staff

1904

Accommodation for Officers

1906

Assessed rent

1915

Provision of furniture and other amenities

1916

Building partly used as office

1917

Hire of private buildings

1918

Rent for temporary huts and tented accommodation

1919

Hire charges for furniture

1920

Payment of service charges to local bodies

1929

Building not essential to Railway Working

1931

Schools

1934

Hire of private buildings for Institutes

1935

Conversion of existing building

1936

Incidence of maintenance and upkeep of Institutes

1939

Club House for Officers

1940

Other structures for the benefit of Railway Staff

1941

Railway building occupied by other Government Departments and private individuals or vice versa

1942

Railway buildings including residential quarters permanently allotted for the exclusive use of other Government Departments

1943

Recovery of rent from Post and Telegraph Department

1944

Surrender of buildings

1945

Surrender of fittings

1947

Defence and Post and Telegraphs Department quarters constructed for railway servants

1949

Railway building including residential quarters temporarily allotted to other Government Departments

1950

Railway residential quarters temporarily allotted to non-railway Government employees

1951

Other Government Department quarters allotted temporarily to Railway employees

1953

Occupation of Railway Rest Houses or Rest Rooms

1956

Military building on railway lands

1957

Buildings for Railway Police

1960

Accommodation for Railway Cooperative Societies

1963

Buildings to house Staff Welfare Organisations

1964

Accommodation for Refreshment Rooms

1965

Rent for premises let out to recognised Unions and Federations

1966

Railway Building let out to outsiders

1967

Service Buildings

1969

Recovery of charges for maintenance of lawn

1974

General Rules

1977.

List of buildings and rent rolls

^Top

LIST OF APPENDIX

Appendix No.

Particulars

I.

List of Plan Heads

II.

Extracts from the Land Acquisition Act, Act 1 of 1894 (as modified 292 from time to time)

III

Tables and Sections of Land Widths to be taken up

IV

Form of schedules for Land Acquisition

V

Forms used by Land Acquisition Officers

VI

License Form for use of Railway Land for Oil Companies and other outside parties

VII

The Public Premises (Eviction of Unauthorised Occupants) Act 1971-Extracts

VIII

Forms of notices or orders to be used under The Public Premises (Eviction of unauthorised occupants) Act 1971

IX

Rules for the Working of Ballast Trains

X

Railway owned stone or ballast quarries-Extract of Important Rules and Regulations

XI

Standard Agreement Format for execution with N.H.A.I.(first modal agreement)

Standard Agreement Format for execution with State Govt. (Second modal agreement)

 

^Top

CHAPTER I

ORGANISATION AND ADMINISTRATION

Civil Engineering Department - An Overview

101. The maintenance and renewal of Civil Engineering assets of the Railways is the responsibility of the Open Line Orgainsation of the Civil Engineering Department. The construction activities of the Railways may be under the administrative control of a Chief Engineer (Construction) reporting directly to the General Manager of an Open Line or under the independent administrative control of a Chief Administrative Officer (Construction) or General Manager (Construction) reporting directly to the Railway Board.

Organisational Structure of Open Line Orgainsation

102. The open line orgainsation of the Civil Engineering Department is headed by a Chief Engineer who works under the control of General Manager. The Chief Engineer is the Administrative and professional head of his Department and is assisted by Chief Track Engineer. Chief Bridge Engineer, Chief Planning and Design Engineer and / or a Chief Engineer (General) in regard to their respective functions.

103. Throughout the rest of this Code, the expression "Chief Engineer" wherever used includes Chief Track Engineer, Chief Bridge Engineer and Chief Engineer (Construction) unless the contrary is clear from the context.

104. It is the duty of Chief Engineer to see that adequate and detailed rules exist or are prescribed in departmental manuals for the efficient maintenance and renewal of all open line work/way/bridges and other structures of the Railway and that these are actually maintained at the standard required to satisfy the Additional Commissioner of Railway Safety.

105. At the close of each year the Chief Engineer will append a certificate to the Annual Report of the Railway that the Permanent Way and other structural works on the Railway have been maintained efficiently.

106. The Chief Engineer shall arrange for the preparation and compilation of budget at every budgetary stage and shall coordinate the compilation of Railway's Annual Works Programme.

107. The Chief Engineer shall exercise control to see that no expenditure is in excess of the budget grant and that budget allotment are fully expended in so far as is consistent with actual requirements, general economy and the prevention of large expenditure in the last months of the year for the sole purpose of avoiding lapses. The control should ensure that any money which is not likely to be needed during the year is promptly surrendered so as to allow its appropriation for other purposes.

108. The Chief Engineer Shall maintain in his office a Schedule of Rate for each Division and book of standard specifications and satisfy himself that the rates allowed for works are not excessive.

109. The Chief Engineer shall be in charge of Gazetted Staff Cadre with regard to planning posting and training.

C. A. O. (Const.) / Chief Engineer (Construction)

110. C.A.O./Const/ Chief Engineer (Construction) shall provide necessary direction and control for the efficient and economical execution of all works under his charge.

111. The C. A. O./Const/Chief Engineer (Construction) shall maintain liaison with the Open Line Organisation and shall follow the general policies and procedure laid down for the execution of works. In cases where a different policy or procedure becomes necessary to be followed, he shall do so after due consultation with the Open Line Organisation to ensure proper co-ordination.

112. The C. A. O./Const/Chief Engineer (Construction) shall exercise necessary budgetary control within the allotment of funds at his disposal and shall co-ordinate with the Chief Engineer for the Compilation of budget at every budgetary Stage.

113. The C. A. O./Const/Chief Engineer (Construction) shall co-ordinate with the Chief Engineer with regard to the placement of personnel for the various assignments under his charge keeping in view the over all career development of such personnel.

114. Deleted

115. Deleted

Executive and Accounts Officers

116. The C. A. O./Const/Chief Engineer will exercise a concurrent control along with the Financial Adviser and Chief Accounts Officer over the duties of the officers of the department in connection with the accounts and expenditure and will give all possible support to that officer in enforcing strict attention to the regulations concerning the disbursement of money, the custody of stores and the maintenance and submission of accounts. He will have no authority over the Financial Adviser and Chief Accounts Officer in regard to the internal check of expenditure, but will have a claim on him for assistance in matters relating to Accounts and finance and compliance with his wishes to the fullest extent possible. The Chief Engineer should arrange to keep the Financial Adviser and Chief Accounts Officer fully cognizant of all proceedings and proposals affecting in any way the financial interest of the Railway, so that the latter may watch them properly and give the Chief Engineer the requisite advice and aid to enable him to comply with the demands of financial regularity.

117. In the proper and legitimate discharge of the responsibilities, the Engineers are authorised to incur expenditure within the limits of their financial powers. All claims against the railway arising out of such authorisation of expenditure are checked (in accordance with the prescribed rules) on behalf of the Railway Administration by the Accounts Officer who arranges to settle the claims which are found to be in order. In so functioning and in giving financial advice to the Engineers, the Accounts Officer acts solely in the interest of the engineers with whom he jointly participates in the process of railway management. Similarly engineers on their part should give due consideration to the financial advice tendered by the Accounts Officer.

118. In cases where an Accounts Officer is unable to accept as proper, any order of an Engineer or any claims arising therefrom, he should bring to the notice of the Engineer the nature of the impropriety or irregularity and suggest the proper and regular course of action under the extant rules and orders. In the event of disagreement between the Accounts Officer and the Engineer the Following procedure should be followed :

(a) The Accounts Officer should furnish a short note of his objection to the Engineer and ask him to obtain the decision of the General Manager.

(b) If the General Manager and the Financial Adviser and Chief Accounts Officer are unable to come to an agreement, the former should consider himself under an obligation to make a reference to Railway Board when so requested by the Financial Adviser and Chief Accounts Officer. While doing so the General Manager should incorporate fairly and fully the comments and views of the Financial Advise and Chief Accounts Officer. The orders of the Railway Board on such a reference when received by the General Manager shall be furnished by him to the Financial Adviser and Chief Accounts Officer.

119. In matters of interpretation of rules and of obtaining sanction of the Railway Board or higher authorities, the duty of the Accounts Officer is to address the executive officer concerned and request him to obtain the orders of the Railway Board. In such cases the opinion of the Accounts Officer should be furnished to the executive officer in the form of a short note, which should be included verbatim in the report made by the General Manager to the Railway Board for orders. When the matter is really very urgent, as for instance, when delay in the issue of orders by the Railway Board may involve a serious financial loss to the Railway or dislocation of business or when a financial irregularity or defect in the working of a department of the Railway has to be promptly brought to the notice of the Railway Board, the Financial Adviser and Chief Accounts Officer may, after addressing the General Manager, send a copy of his note to the Railway Board for information with an explanation of the urgency of the case and a request for the issue of early orders. In all such cases the Financial Adviser and Chief Accounts Officer should await the order of the Railway Board. (C. F. para 109-A).

120. In making proposals for economy or improvement affecting other departments of the railway, the Accounts Officer should always consult the executive officers of the department and such proposals should, as a rule, be sent to the competent executive authority through the departmental officers. But the Financial Adviser and Chief Accounts Officer is empowered if he thinks it necessary to make such references direct to the head of the Railway (cf. para 110-A).

121. In addition to the returns and accounts required to be furnished to the departments by the Accounts Officer, in accordance with the rules in the Railway Codes and other orders of the Railway Board the Accounts Officer should furnish the executive officers of the Railway with such other accounts and returns as may be called for by them. Any statistical or other information required by the executive officers, which can be obtained from the records of the Accounts Office should also be promptly supplied (cf para 111-A).

122. Every Railway Officer should attend promptly to any objection communicated to him by the Accounts Officer (cf. para 1108-G). An item of expenditure may be held under objection for one or more of the following reasons. viz:

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·         (i) Want of sanctioned estimate;

·         (ii) Excess over sanctioned estimate;

·         (iii) Want of sanctioned appropriation;

·         (iv) Excess over sanctioned appropriation;

·         (v) Miscellaneous reasons e. g., absence of vouchers, breach of financial rule, incorrect allocation, etc. (cf para 1112-G).

123. It is the duty of the Accounts Officer to bring to the notice of the executive authority concerned, without any avoidable delay, all items of irregular expenditure held under objection by him and it shall be the function of the executive authority to take the earliest possible steps for the regularisation of the expenditure by according or obtaining the necessary sanction, or by ordering recovery of the amount irregularly disbursed or by furnishing the further information required by the Accounts Officer. (cf Para 1113 G).

124. In the Open Line divisions, the role of the Divisional Accounts Officer in relation to the Divisional Engineers is the same as that of the Financial Adviser and Chief Accounts Officer to the Chief Engineer. In this code the term "Accounts Officer" wherever it is used refers to the Financial Adviser and Chief Accounts Officer of the railway or to the Divisional Accounts Officer of a division, as the case may be.

125. If the executive authority concerned is unable to accept the objection raised by the Accounts Officer, it should at once refer the matter to the next higher authority for his orders and the objection shall not be considered as having been cleared until it has been either withdrawn by the Accounts Officer or overruled by the competent authority. (cf. Para 1114 G).

Divisional Officers

126. The organisational set up of the open line in a Division may consist of more than one Divisional Engineer (Senior Scale) or Senior Divisional Engineer (JA Grade) in charge of a territorial jurisdiction under the administrative control of Divisional Superintendent, and reporting to Chief Engineer, Chief Track Engineer or Chief Bridge Engineer as the case may be on departmental matters.

127. A construction division will generally be under the immediate charge of an Executive Engineer (Senior Scale), under the Administrative Control of the C. A. O./Const Chief Engineer (Construction) and reporting directly to that officer in all matters. In cases where such a construction division is made a part of open Line Divisional set up then the Executive Engineer will be placed under the Administrative Control of the Divisional Railway Manager.

128. For the purpose of this Code the term "Executive Engineer" includes Senior Divisional Engineer (JA) or Divisional Engineer (Senior Scale) holding charges of a division unless the contrary is clear from the text.

129. The Executive Engineer should arrange for the proper execution of works in his division and superintend the works. He is responsible for the punctual execution of orders issued by the C. A. O./const/chief Engineer (const.)/Chief Engineer.

130. Executive Engineers are responsible for the accuracy of all drawings they submit and should attest them by their signatures.

131. It is the duty of the Executive Engineer to pay strict attention to the economical application of all labour and materials. He should also strive to make arrangements for bringing economy into use, on all occasions, the articles obtainable from General Stores or Surplus and Released Materials Stock and those procurable in the local markets and the natural products of his division.

132. Executive Engineers are strictly prohibited from commencing the construction of any work of expending public funds or entering into any commitments without the sanction of competent authority; also from making or permitting any, except trifling deviations from any sanctioned design of drawing in the course of execution unless under specific authority, or in case of emergency, under the rules in Chapter XI. All unauthorized expenditure will be incurred at the risk of the officer responsible.

133. Executive Engineers are responsible for the good quality of all work done under their orders, and cannot without proper authority, transfer to any one else the executive charge of works entrusted to them for construction.

134. Executive Engineers will take the necessary steps for securing prompt payment for the works under their control. In his arrangements for account-keeping, the Executive Engineer should exercise a real and efficient control and check over his Section Officer (Accounts) or accounts assistants and is responsible for assuring himself that his accounts are regularly posted from day to day. 

135. Executive Engineers are responsible for the correctness, in all respects, of the original records of cash and stores, receipts and expenditure, and for seeing that complete vouchers are obtained.

136. Every Executive Engineer is required to report immediately to the Chief Engineer any important accident or unusual occurrence or financial losses by theft, misappropriation or other causes connected with his division, and to state how he has acted in consequence.

137. A summary of the powers delegated to Executive Engineers (which, as regards expenditure, can only be exercised within the limits of budget allotments) should be furnished to the Accounts Officer.

Sub-Divisions

138. The sub unit of a division both in the open line and construction is called a Sub Division. The Sub Division will be in charge of an Assistant Engineer or a Divisional Engineer (Senior Scale)-holding direct charge of an upgraded post of an Assistant Engineer in the open line. In the case of a Divisional Engineer (Senior Scale) holding charge of a Sub Division in an upgraded post, the power and duties prescribed in this Code for an Assistant Engineer shall be applicable to him.

139. Engineering Supervisors should not as a rule be required to keep any public money beyond an imprest. They should keep muster rolls of all labour engaged by them and other prescribed accounts and it will be their duty at all times to see that labour receive full payment at prescribed periods.

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Section Officer (Accounts)

140. The duties of Section Officer (Accounts) are to check the arithmetical accuracy of all accounts and returns received from supervisors, and all bills and other claims presented by contractors and others and to compile the divisional accounts and other returns with accuracy in accordance with the several forms prescribed and generally assist the Divisional Engineer in all matters relating to the expenditure of cash and stores in the division. He is responsible for bringing to the Divisional Engineer's notice any irregularities that come to light in examining the accounts.

141. On the open line the Section Officer (Accounts) will function under the professional control of Accounts Officer and under the administrative control of the Divisional Engineer. He will deal with vouchers and other documents/cases up to executive stage and pass them on to Expenditure Accounts Section for further disposal and internal check on behalf of the Accounts Officer.

142. The duties prescribed for Section Officer (Accounts) in paragraph 140 ante will apply mutatis mutandis' to Section Officer (Accounts) attached to construction divisions. The Section Officer (Accounts) should see that the rules and orders in force are observed in respect of all transactions of the division. If he considers that any transaction or order affecting expenditure or receipt is objectionable and will be challenged in internal check by the Accounts Officer, it is his duty to bring this fact to the notice of the Executive Engineer. It will then be his duty to comply with the orders of the Executive Engineer If he has been overruled and if he is not satisfied with the decision of the Executive Engineer, he should make a brief note of the case in his Internal Check Register (Form E. 142' given below) and lay the register before the Executive Engineer, so that the latter may record his reasons for his decision. This register will remain in the personal custody of the Section Officer (Accounts) except when it is submitted to the Executive Engineer. It should be made available to the Accounts Officer at the time of his inspection or whenever called for. It will be kept in the following form :

                                    Form E. 142 

SECTION OFFICERS (ACCOUNTS) INTERNAL CHECK REGISTER

 

Item No.

Brief particulars of the transaction or order objected to in internal check by the Section Officer (Accounts)

Nature of objection (Rule and order to be quoted)

Amount of objection

Executive Engineer's orders (with reasons for not admitting the objection)

Remarks of the Accounts Officer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rs.

P.

 

 

Transfer of Charge

143. Transfer Notes.--When an Executive Engineer relinquishes his charge, he should leave for the information and guidance of his successor a statement covering the following points :

·         (1) The extent of the Executive Engineer's charge, of the sub-divisions, and of the sections in each sub-division. The names of the Assistant Officers and of the Supervisors incharge of sections.

·         (2) All works in hand and uncomplied with orders relating thereto, with detailed notes as to the action taken or suggested for their completion and full explanation of any peculiarity circumstances or apprehended difficulties.

·         (3) The position of any banks, cuttings, or lengths of permanent way which require special watch fullness and care.

·         (4) Any bridges, buildings, or other structures which call for particular attention or treatment.

·         (5) The portions (if any) of the division which suffer, or are likely to suffer, during severe rains, or are liable to inundation by high floods in rivers.

·         (6) All prominent features, such as slips, damages by floods and accidents with `which he is acquainted, or of which he has become aware during his tenure of charge.

·         (7) Notes about locomotive wells and tanks which are likely to fail or cause anxiety, and about remedial measures taken or suggested.

·         (8) All bills for work done remaining unpaid on the date of handing over with reasons why such bills remain unpaid.

·         (9) Other unadjusted claims with reasons for their non-adjustment and notes as to any complication likely to arise.

·         (10) Notes on the quantity of stone boulders, if any, stacked for emergency purposes.

·         (11) The works for which Completion Reports are due with remarks as to the cause of delay in their transmission; also information regarding Completion Drawings not yet submitted.

·         (12) A note as regards any speed restrictions on the division.

·         (14) A note stating definitely whether the Permanent-Way and Station Yard Diagrams have been kept Up-to-date.

·         (15) A special memorandum concerning any ghat stations on the division.

·         (16) A note on the state of work in the office. Similar "Transfer Notes" should be left by Assistant Engineer under orders of transfer. The relieving officer should study these notes carefully with a view to taking appropriate and timely action after assuming charge.

·         (17) Notes regarding any other items which should be specially known to the relieving officer as early as possible, such as encroachments, law cases, other disputes, etc.

·         (18) Confidential notes on the staff under him.

144. Taking Charge.-The relieving officer should, on arrival at the headquarters of the charge he is to take over, report himself to the incumbent of the charge for the time being and study the "Transfer Notes" prepared by the latter. He should than takeover charge in the manner laid down in the following paragraphs. He should at the same time report to his immediate superior that he has commenced taking charge.

145. Transfer of Cash.-The cash Imprest Account should be closed on the date of transfer and a note recorded in it, under the signature or both relieved and relieving officers showing the cash made over and received in transfer by them respectively.

146. All records, instruments etc. under the immediate charge of the relieved officer should also be taken charge by the relieving officer. After completely taking over charge, the relieving officer should report the fact to his immediate superior specifying the date on which he assumed charge and forward a copy of the "Transfer Notes" (para 143). All transfer reports should be passed on to the Chief Engineer who will pass such orders thereon as may be necessary.

147. Incumbency Register.-A register in the form given below (Form E. 147) of incumbents of charges should be kept in every Division and Sub-Division. Every officer should, before relinquishing charge on transfer, call for this register, make the requisite entries pertaining to his incumbency and attest such entries with his full signature.  

INCUMBENCY REGISTER

 Form E. 147

..................

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Division or Sub-Division

Name of Officer

Designation

Period of Incumbency

Signature of Officer on relief

Remarks

From To

 

   

   

 

 

 

******

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CHAPTER II

MODES OF INVESTIGATION OF RAILWAY PROJECTS
 

201. Project Development Process. The Project Development Process consists of the following sequences :

202. Project formulation is an essential part of the planning process and the Project Investigator must be given clear indications regarding the objectives to be achieved and the options to be investigated. Preinvestment decision investigations may relate to long term planning and to decide priorities. Such investigations are in the form of Reconnaissance Surveys (cf. Para 204) where much detailed investigations are not carried out and cost estimation will also be approximate. Investigations of this nature are termed "Feasibility Studies".

203. Techno-Economic Surveys. Pre-investment decision investigations may also involve examination of various alternatives including optimisation of existing facilities to decide the best alternative from financial and operating point of view to make an ideal investment decision. Such investigations relating to new lines, doublings, gauge, conversions schemes, yard remodellings, passenger terminal etc. involving Preliminary Engineering-cum-Traffic Surveys, (cf Para 204) are termed as Techno-Economic, Surveys. In these surveys, data, regarding the growth of traffic is collected, traffic projections are made the existing facilities are evaluated the possibility of optimising them and new alternative schemes are examined. An estimate prepared based on such an investigation should under ordinary circumstances be sufficiently accurate to permit investment decision being taken."

204. Classification of Surveys. The various kinds of Surveys which are carried out as a part of investigation of Railway projects are indicated below :

(i) Traffic Surveys. This is a detailed study to make a forecast of the traffic prospects to facilitate the projection of the most promising route and the category of line (cf. Para 210 and 211) to be constructed in the case of new lines and to assess the quantum of traffic to determine the traffic facilities to be provided on an existing line. These surveys are to be under-taken in conjunction with Reconnaissance or Preliminary Engineering surveys so that the Technical feasibility and costs of the alternative proposals can be taken into account while formulating the recommendations.
 

(ii) Reconnaissance Survey :

(iii) Preliminary Survey :

From aerial Photographs on 1: 10,000 scale or 5 times the scale of the available photographs for obtaining an optimum alignment.

(iv) A Final Location Survey will generally be a post investment decision investigation to prepare working details and to make accurate costing in certain cases. The principal differences between the work required in a Final Location Survey and that in a Preliminary Survey is that the alignment finally selected during a survey should be fully staked on the ground with a theodolite and/or Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments, the report should be fuller and detailed plans and sections should be submitted.

205. Decision to Undertake Survey.-Railway Administration have no power to undertake Surveys on their own. After a Survey is included in the sanctioned Budget the General Managers can sanction Survey Estimates costing upto Rs. 3 lakhs.

206. Preliminary Investigation.-In the case of construction of new lines a preliminary investigation should be undertaken by the Railway Administration concerned to determine how the proposed line will fit in with the general scheme of future railway development. The preliminary investigation should be based on a careful study of information already available from existing maps, published figures of trade and population of the area to be served and financial and statistical data of existing railways in similar country.

207. Form the results of this investigation it should be possible for the Railway Administration to decide the surveys (see para 204) to be undertaken and take a preliminary view of the category of line (see para 210 & 211) to be provided.

208. If it is decided to undertake a Survey in connection with any proposal for the construction of a new line, additional lines and gauge conversion, estimate for the proposed Survey should be prepared. In the case of Surveys for new lines, the information collected in the course of Preliminary Investigation (vide para 206) should be embodied in the report accompanying the estimate.

209. Terms of Reference.-The project Investigator should be supplied by the Railway Administration with terms of reference, and should indicate the category of line, ruling gradient to be adopted etc. The terms of reference should include instructions regarding the scope and nature of the investigations to be carried out, particulars of any railway lines already projected in the area and what undertakings or interests, if any, are involved in the proposal. The terms of reference should also include instructions to the officer-in-charge of the survey to visit the headquarters of the Railway Administration at suitable intervals both during the progress of work in the field and during the period of recess in order to consult the General Manager and his principal officers and where necessary have the original terms of reference modified from time to time.

210. Categories of Lines.-Broad Gauge lines on Indian Railways are classified into various categories indicated below, on the basis of future maximum permissible speed.

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(1) Group `A'-For a sanctioned speed of 160 km. per hour

Bridges will be built to revised BG loading of 1975 with a maximum axle load of 22.5 tonnes for the locomotive and train load of 7.67 tonnes per meter behind the locomotives with a maximum axle load of 22.9 tonnes for the train load.

(2) Group `B'-For a sanctioned speed of 130 km. per hour

Bridges will be built to revised BG loading of 1975 with a maximum axle load of 22.5 tonnes for the locomotive and a train load of 7.67 tonnes per metre behind the locomotives with a maximum axle load of 22.9 tonnes for the train load.

(3) Group `C'-Suburban Sections.

Bridges will be built to revised BG loading of 1975 with a maximum axle load of 22.5 tonnes and a train load of 7.67 tonnes per metre behind the locomotives with a maximum axle load of 22.9 tonnes for the train load.

(4) Group `D'-Where the maximum sanctioned speed is 100 Kms/hour, as at present.

Bridges shall be built to revised BG loading of 1975 with a maximum axle load of 22.5 tonnes for the locomotive and a train load of 7.67 tonnes per metre behind the locomotives with maximum axle load of 22.9 tonnes for train load.

(5) Group `E'-Other sections of branch lines with present sanctioned speed.

Bridges will be built to revised BG loading of 1975 with a maximum axle load of 22.5 tonnes for the locomotives and a train load of 7.67 tonnes per metre behind the locomotives with a maximum axle load of 22.9 tonnes for the train load.

211. Meter guage lines on Indian Railways is classified into various categories indicated below :

(1) Trunk Routes.-  Having a traffic density of 5 million G. T. Km per Km per annum and above or where the speed will be above 70 Km hour (45 mph).

Bridges will be built to MGML standard of loading i. e. 13.2 tonnes axle loads and a train of 3.87 tonnes per metre run behind the engine.

(2) Main lines (other than trunk routes). - Having a traffic density of 2.5 to 5.0 million G. T. Km per Km per annum.

Bridge will be built to MGML standard of loading i. e. 13.2 tonnes axle load and a train of 3.87 tonnes per metre run behind the engine.

(3) Other main lines and branch lines. Having a traffic density of 1.25 to 2.5 million G. T. Km per Km per annum.

Bridges will be built to MGML standard of loading i. e. 13.2 tonnes axle loads and a train of 3.87 tonnes per metre run behind the engine.

(4) Tertiary lines. Having a traffic density of below 1.25 million G. T. Km per Km per annum.

Bridges will be built to MGBL standard of loading i. e. 10.7 tonnes axle loads and a train of 3.87 tonnes per metre run behind the engine.

212. The use of second-hand rails is permissible, provided that they have not lost more than ten per cent of their weight and, having regard to the volume of traffic expected, that their anticipated life in the new line is not less than ten years.

213. Railway Administrations may decide, on the merits of each particular case, the standard of ballasting necessary on first opening.

Surveys

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214. Scope of Survey Operations.

(A) As a general rule the work necessary under Preliminary or a final location survey will be :

(B) Where suitable aerial photograph are available for carrying out Preliminary Engineering Survey by Photogrammetric Technique, the following works will suffice :

Alignment

215. In fixing the alignment of railway line, the following points (para 216 to 221) require attention.

216. Position of Curves.-It is preferable to have cuttings and tunnels on straight track but they may be provided on curves if the cost of having them on the straight is excessive.

217. Degree of Curvature.-The sharpest degree of curve to be adopted should normally suit the projected speed corresponding to the category of line proposed. Sharper curves with speed restrictions may, however, be proposed where the cost of keeping down the curvature within the normal limit would be excessive. In the case of survey for additional lines, the guide lines indicated in para 236 may be referred to. In planning the layout of curves for new constructions and additional lines on category `A' routes for Broad Gauge maximum cant of 185 mm may be assumed for the purpose of locating all permanent structures etc. by the side of the curves on a line having a potential for increasing speeds in future.

218. Transition Curves.- The shape of transition shall be a cubic parabola with a linear. The length of transitions should correspond to the speed projected of the projected line and in the case of category `A' of BG the length should be worked out on the basis of 185 mm cant. The cant gradient shall be so chosen that the rate of change of cant/cant deficiency at the maximum permissible speed does not exceed 55 mm/sec. under any circumstances for BG lines. For the purpose of designing the future layout of the curves, a cant gradient of in 1.200 shall be aimed at for BG lines.

219. The desirable minimum length of straight between reverse curve should be 50 m for BG.

220. Gradients - Sags in cuttings should be avoided to the maximum possible extent. If possible sharp changes of gradient should be avoided on curves.

221. Vertical Curves - Vertical curves shall be laid out only on those points of change of grade where the algebric difference between the grade is equal to or more than 4 MM/Metre. The minimum radius of the vertical curves shall be 4000 M for `A' category, 3000 M for `B' category & 2500 M for `D' and `E' categories lines in the case of Broad guage and 2500 M in case of all categories of Metre Gauge routes.

222. Alternative Alignments - Where alternative alignments of importance have been examined and rejected their trace should be indicated by a dotted line on the plans and the reasons for rejecting the alternative should be explained in the reports.

223. Plane Table Survey - As a rule where Plane Table Surveys are carried out all details within a distance of 100 metres of the final alignment should be observed. Particular care should be taken in determining the boundaries of village land in entering on the plans any other details required for the preparation of land plans. The State Government's requirements for the notification for land Acquisition should be studied for the purpose. The position at which transverse levels and cross sections of rivers have been taken should be clearly marked on the survey plans.

Rivers

224. Important Rivers- If a correct survey of and important river does not exist, the river should be surveyed for a distance of 8 kms. up stream and 2 kms. down stream, all spill channels up stream being shown on the plan; these distance of 8 and 2 Kms. are to be taken as measured at right angles to the centre line of the Railway and not along the course of the river.

225. Gross section should be taken of the river bed at suitable points and the position marked on the survey plan. The level of the highest known flood or ordinary flood and of ordinary low water should be noted on each cross section. The average slope of the river bed is to be determined from a point about 2 Kms above the railway crossing to a point 2 Kms below the same. In case there are sharp changes in the bed slopes the local bed slope will have to be determined over a shorter length.

226. High Flood Levels - Whenever reliable information of high flood levels can be obtained they should be observed frequently and noted. This information is required when deciding on the formation level.

227. Diversion of Rivers - Should it be considered desirable to divert the course of any river or stream, the best method of doing so should be examined, the necessary surveys and sections made, and the diversion shown on the survey plan.

228. Protection Works - Protection works required to prevent encroachment of rivers, to mitigate the effect of bursting of tanks or scour of surface water in the vicinity of the line, should be carefully considered on the ground and the position and extent of such work determined and surveyed, high flood marks of spill water should be carefully sought out and recorded on plans and sections.

229. Construction of New Railway Bridges - Whenever new Railway bridge are built on new lines involving either (i) spans of 24.384 m (80 ft) and above, or (ii) waterways of 304.8m. (1,000 ft.) and above, or (iii) well foundations, a decision should be taken whether the sub-structures should be built :-

In order to enable the Railway Board to decide what should be done, additional information should be given in the Survey Reports as indicated below for each of the bridge falling under each of the three categories given in sub-para above :-

230. Provision of traction over-head equipment structures on new bridges - In all case of new construction, doubling, avoiding lines and fly-overs, irrespective of the fact whether the section islikely to be electrified in the near future or not, provision should be made in the piers for holes for fixing OHE masts in future in the cases of bridges with a total opening of 45.72 metre (150 ft.)

Station Sites

231. (A) Station Sites - The position of station Yards should be almost the first thing to be looked for in a survey in level country. The common practice of joining up important villages by straight lines on maps of 0.5 Kms. to 1 cm. scale often result in the introduction of unnessarily sharp curves near stations. It generally pays to select a station site on the ground and to produce the straight line through the yard as far as outer signals in both directions before turning in the direction of the next obligatory point. The site for stations should be completely surveyed in such details as to be suitable for plotting to a scale of 10 m to 1 cm and cross sections should be taken, if necessary.

This detailed survey should take in every thing within the proposed boundary of the station yard. The dimensions of the plot of ground intended for the station yard should be sufficient to allow ample space, not only for first requirements but also for extended accommodation likely to be needed to meet increased traffic in the future. Care should be taken to make arrangements for sufficient land outside the boundary of the station yard, for borrow-pits or spoil banks. Borrow-pits near station yards are undesirable, because they provide breeding grounds for mosquitoes and endanger the health of the railway staff and of other persons living in the vicinity.

(B) Where suitable aerial Photographs are available for carrying out preliminary survey by photogrammetric technique, plans for station site may be prepared by enlarging the plans obtained from aerial photographs.

232. If possible, a station should not be near a curve, but if this is unavoidable, the question of the view of the outer signal should be considered. No steep falling gradient should, if it can be avoided, begin within 45 metres of the outermost point. The possibility of new intermediate crossing stations being introduced, when traffic develops, should be considered in grading the section and in fixing the position of stations for first construction. The distance between sites selected for stations should, as far as possible, having due regard to local conditions, be multiples of the ultimate distance apart of crossing stations when traffic is fully developed.

233. Junction Arrangements. --Except in the case where a new line is of a different guage and has entirely its own arrangements, the plans and estimates for the junction should be prepared in consultation with the open line administration of the existing railway. As a rule it is advisable to join nearly 2 Km away from the centre of the junction and hence run parallel to the existing line.

234. Survey for the Provision of Additional Lines. In carrying out the survey for the provision of additional lines (alongside the existing track) the following points require attention (para 235 and 236.)

235. The projected line should be laid parallel to the existing line as far as possible on the right hand side or on the left hand side, depending on

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236. While determining the alignment for the additional lines, the following points have to be considered :

237. Gauge Conversion Surveys.--In carrying out Gauge Conversion Surveys, the objective should be to use the existing assets including formation, bridges, building signalling and permanent way without strengthening if possible and with strengthening if necessary. The following points (Para 238 to 242) require attention.

238. Alignment. --In deciding the alignment of the proposed gauge a decision will first have to be taken whether the retention of the link of the existing gauge in addition to the new gauge is essential on operational considerations. The link may be maintained either by having mixed gauge on that section or independent parallel lines of the new gauges. In sections where the old gauge is not to be retained, the following alternatives are available for consideration :

(i) Straight Conversion.--In this case the centre line of the existing gauge and the proposed gauge are the same. This procedure is to be normally followed within the constraints of grade and the degree of curvature indicated in the terms of reference.

(ii) Shifted Alignment.--In this case the centre line of the proposed gauge is shifted marginally to take some advantage e. g., to use existing platforms or to avoid difficulty in executing earth work like widening of long cutting so that widening is done on one side etc.

(iii) Parallel Alignment.---n this case the alignment of the proposed gauge is taken away from the existing alignment. Advantage in following this method is that all work can be carried out without interfering with the existing track. If there is considerable difference in the rail levels between existing and proposed tracks or if a large number of bridges require reconstruction than the adoption of this method requires consideration.

(iv) Diversion--.In this case the proposed alignment is taken completely away from the existing alignment for long lengths. This method is adopted in the case of ghat sections, when the existing track is having very sharp curves and steep gradients.

239. Re-alignments of Curves. The higher speed permitted on the proposed gauge will require provision of long transition curves, which will cause a shift of the entire curve inside, which should be kept in view. There may be sharp curves in the existing alignment and the question of retaining some of these curve with speed restrictions or flattening them will have to be decided by working out the cost the realignment vis-a-vis advantages to be gained.

240. Formation.--While it is desirable to provide standard width of formation of banks for the proposed gauge in such of the stretches where the alignment passes through built up areas and the acquisition is difficult and also expensive, adoption of lesser widths and sleeper slopes in good soil condition areas has to be considered. In some cases provision of the walls may also have to be examined. In the case of cuttings, it may be possible to retain the existing widths of cuttings by making side drains pucca and covering them with RCC slabs. When this is not possible for any reason the cutting can be widened to 5.49 m (18 ft.) in the case of BG exclusive of the side drains. In doing so widening of cutting all through can be avoided by adopting a slightly sleeper slope than what is existing especially in the case of stable cutting. Each case, however, has to be decided on its merits after taking into account the soil characteristics and other relevant factors.

241. The possibility of retaining the existing sub-structures of bridges with overstress to the permissible extent with or without strengthening should be examined. Where the condition of bridge is otherwise satisfactory and adequate free board clearance is available, wholesale re-building of bridges to the standard of the proposed gauge can be avoided, by suitable strengthening of sub-structures.

242. On girder bridges the adequacy of the piers to accommodate bed-blocks for the girder of the proposed gauge and also ballast wall, in the case of abutments have to be examined, in addition to extent of over-stress. When the condition of the arch is satisfactory and sufficient cushion is available or can be provided, its retention may be examined by permitting 100% over stress in the arch masonry. Also the strength of the arches can be determined by carrying out certain tests for which the RDSO may be consulted. In the case of steel girders, their strength will have to be assessed and methods of adequately strengthening them to the standards prescribed for the proposed gauge investigated, provided of course, there is sufficient residual fatigue life left in the girders.

243. Railway Electrification Survey - In carrying out the Surveys for Railway Electrification the following points require the attention of Civil Engineer (paras 245 to 248). The terms of reference for such Surveys shall be issued to the Civil Engineers by the Administration conducting such survey.

244. Similar to that mentioned in Paras 202 to 204 Railway Electrification surveys may also be classified in two categories -

In case of urgency it may be necessary to include portions of (b) alongwith (a), but normally the two surveys are taken up separately.

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245. Cost-cum-feasibility survey requires a quick survey of the route proposed for electrification to examine the major civil Engineering installations which may have a bearing on the cost of

electrification. This will include study of heavy overline structure like fly-overs. Road over-bridges, through girder bridges and long deck type girder bridge and tunnels to examine whether these will require major or minor modification to permit erection of overhead equipment. An examination of the proposed remodelling plans, track renewals, reballasting including changes in the level of track, realignment of curves, all having a bearing on track geomertry and the dates when these are proposed to be completed. This is necessary as the OHE structure and traction OHE contact wire has to be kept at a fixed geomerical tolerance from the track co-ordinates. In yards, a survey of tracks proposed to be wired will have to be examined for the track centres to prepare slewing plans and assess their cost, for location of OHE structures. Feasibility of running 12' wide EMU stock on suburban routes in vicinity of metropolitan cities will need to be investigated. Availability of suitable land for location of locomotive shed, remote control centres. OHE S & T maintenance depots will need to be examined. Also a quick survey of soil type over the route will reveal the cost involved in foundations.

246. On acceptance of a project report, foot-by-foot detailed surveys are required for the preparation of working drawing for the electrification Projects. This will need detailed examination of all the items mentioned in para 245 above as well as that of light overline structures like carriage watering arrangements, foot over Bridges, platform shelters, overhead carriage watering arrangements, and water columns, to finalise the plans for their modifications, if required. Detailed, accurate survey of the route will need examination of the above as well as pipe lines running alongside track, track centres soil types, all needed to be examined for location of overhead equipment structures, sites for the various buildings required for electrification are also required. To finalise the design of structures including those for overhead equipment, it will be necessary to ascertain from the meteorological Department the wind pressures prevailing over the route and determine the exposed locations subject to heavy winds, e. g., those on embankments, in gullies with funnel effects and on bridges.

247. Based on the survey carried out as per para 246 above plans will need to be prepared. For preparation of overhead equipment lay out plants, the survey plans in scale 1 : 1000 in open routes and for yards 1 : 500 giving salient details, to facilitate preparation of pegging plans will need to be prepared. This will need accurate marking of location of turn outs, crossovers, track centres, overline structures, level crossings, bridges, drains and pipes running along the track as well as track centres.

248. Site plans marking locosheds/EMU car sheds, maintenance depots remote control centres, control office, repeater stations and staff quarters are required to be made, Land acquisition plans, if required will have to be finalised. All these will need to be finalised in consultation with open line.

249. Field Books.---All measurements and notes taken in the field should be neatly recorded in field books, which should be the basis of all survey plans, drawings and reports prepared in connection with a survey. The plotting of survey plans and drawings should, as far as possible, keep pace with the field work.

250. Notes to be made in the field.-During the survey, careful notes with dates should be made on the ground, from personal enquiry and observation, regarding any information likely to be useful in working out the details of the projects, and in determining the prospects of the proposed line as a commercial undertaking. The following points should receive special attention :

(i) Facilities for Construction.-Materials for building, such as cement stone aggregate, sand brick lime, fuel slate, timber, etc., and means for obtaining, working and preparing and transporting the same. Arrangements for ballast and for sleeper supply. Style of roofing to be adopted, Labour, skilled and unskilled, available in the district. Any special difficulties regarding the supply of food or water, Prevailing rates and wages, and modifications in the same likely to be caused by the construction of the railway. Means of transport by land or water, existing or capable of development, and probable rates. Facilities for delivering bridge materials, permanent way, etc. during construction. The use of temporary lines, tramways & c. Depots for receiving and for warding material. Sites for temporary staff quarters to be used during construction, taking into account the convenience of the situation as regards the work, and also any conditions, such as water supply, likely to affect the health or comfort of the occupants. Generally, any local conditions likely to affect rates or methods of construction.

(ii) Formation.-The nature of soil for banks and cuttings and notes for use in grading the section; trial pits should be sunk or borings taken where considered necessary to obtain this information. Specimens of rocks and stone about which information is desirable, as to their stability or suitability for building purposes, should be collected and submitted to the Geological Survey Department for examination.

(iii) Bridgework.-Protection work and precautions to be taken against scour and encroachments of rivers and streams, and particulars of diversions proposed. The waterway to be provided for small rivers and streams and particulars of diversions proposed. The probable depth and character of foundations for bridges and culverts, and any particulars to be taken into consideration as affecting the design or construction of the same.

(iv) For rivers requiring a waterway of 110 sq. m. (1,200 square feet) or upwards, information should, as far as practicable, be obtained regarding all circumstances likely to affect the design of the bridge, the waterway to be provided, the depth and the character of the foundations and other details. For example, the average rainfall over the area drained by the river with particulars as to the amount and duration of any exceptionally heavy fall which may have been recorded. The level of the highest flood determined from careful enquiries on both banks of the river, the evidence adduced being examined and checked to such extent as may be practicable. Any special floods, with particulars and dates. Any peculiarities of the drainage area as regards form and declivity, and geological or botanical conditions likely to affect the amount or velocity of the flood discharge. Physical characteristics of the bridgesite or the river-bed in its vicinity as affecting the design of the bridge or the amount of waterway required. Evidence of scour or liability of the river to alter its course. Nature and extent of protection works likely to be encountered. Whether a roadway for cart, animal, or foot traffic is likely to be required on the bridge, and whether there are existing roads in the neighbourhood which could be joined up thereto. Particulars of road bridges and irrigation works on the same stream in the vicinity of the proposed railway bridge be obtained.

(v) Stations.-The nature and extent of traffic to be expected at each station and the accommodation to be provided on opening the line also arrangements for extensions to meet increase of traffic; the selection of suitable site with reference to nature of soil, depth of foundation for buildings, water-supply and other conditions; the situation of the station buildings on one side or other of the railway having in view the convenience of local traffic, the positions of the neighbouring towns, roads, rivers & c., and the sites for crossing stations which it may be necessary in the future to provide when traffic develops.

(vi) Road Crossing, Fencing, etc. Means of crossing the line by level crossings and bridges, under or over, width of roadway for crossing, and gradients to be allowed on approaches to the same with reference to the class of traffic to be accommodated. Special facilities for crossing to be allowed in the case of villagers owning a large amount of land on the opposite side of the line from the village, diversions of roads. Provisions for canal irrigation channels, and any special arrangements required for leading water from sources of supply on one side of the railway to land laying on the other side. The extent and character of fencing to be provided.

251. The Operation of a Reconnaissance Survey. Though not conducted in the same detailed manner as or with all the instruments used in a Preliminary or Final Location Survey, will get generally cover all the points covered by a Preliminary or Final Location Survey.

252. The scope of Traffic Survey is described in Chapter III.

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General Instructions

253. Notification in Local Gazette. Before any survey operations are commenced, a notification in accordance with the terms of Section 4 of the Land Acquisition Act (See Appendix II) is to be inserted in the Local Government Gazette. This should be arranged for by the Railway Administration as promptly as possible after receipt of sanction to the survey, and is independent of the notification published in the Gazette of India by the Railway Board.

254. Damage to Property and Trespass.--The general sanction for a railway survey, given by the Railway Board, does not authorize any interference with the rights or property of public bodies or private individuals. The permission of the officer commanding should be obtained by the Engineer for the entry of the survey party into any military cantonment, fort or entrenched post. In the case of survey passing through a military cantonment, or civil station, the wishes of the officer-in-charge of the cantonment, or civil station should receive due consideration, and his permission should be obtained before any trees are cut or damage done to station property.

255. Compensation for Damage. Where damage to private property is unavoidable, compensation should, if practicable, be paid or tendered direct to the owner on the spot by the engineer before the damage is done. In case of any dispute, the matter should be referred to the local civil authorities to settle with the owner, and the compensation decided upon should be paid as soon as practicable. Should the owner of the property be willing to clear the line himself, he should be allowed to do so and be paid reasonable sum for labour in addition to compensation for the damage done.

256. Religious Edifices etc. Every endeavour should be made to avoid interference with religious edifices, burial grounds or other places or objects which may be considered sacred; where such place or object is inclosed, the enclosure should not be entered except with the permission and in the presence of the person in charge. Similarly, all possible steps should be taken to avoid interference with and prevent the destruction of, ancient remains of archaeological interest.

257. Interference with Pre-existing Railways, Roads, Canals, etc.---Whenever the alignment of a new railway, passes close to or involves any alteration to, or diversion of, pre-existing railways, roads, canals, etc., or interference with any work or land appertaining to the same, the written acceptance of the authorities incharge of such railways, roads, canals, etc., to the proposals involved by the construction of the new railway must in invariably be obtained before any work thereon is put in hand, and the Railway Administration should, therefore, obtain the view of the responsible authority in such cases during the survey.

258. Inquiry should also be made from the State Government in the irrigation Department by the Railway Administration as to whether any dam or river diversion, or any work is proposed which would affect the proposed, railway in any way. If after consultation with the Irrigation Department it is found that any addition or alteration to the Railway would be required owning to such work as is contemplated by the Irrigation Department being carried out, the Railway Board should be asked if provision for the addition or alteration should be made in the estimates and plans.

259. Military Requirements.-- Where the line lies in the vicinity of a military post, camping ground, rifle range or cantonment, the location should be decided by the Engineer in communication with the local military authorities. Should it, however, be found that the military requirements would involve a considerable extra expense in construction, or great inconvenience to traffic, or would be open to serious objection from any engineering point of view, the matter should be referred to the Railway Board for orders.

260. In the case of important bridges the Railway Administration should consult the local military authorities as to whether a roadway is required, and if so, what form of roadway is necessary, particularly in regard to carrying heavy lorries and guns.

261. Assistance from Civil Authorities. The local civil authorities should be freely consulted by the Engineer during the progress of the survey operations, and their opinion should have due weight in determining the most profitable route to be followed. They should be asked to use their influence, as far as practicable, to protect the bench-marks, pegs and other railway marks from removal or injury.

262. The wishes of the local civil authorities should be obtained as to whether roadways suitable for cart or foot-traffic are required on any bridge.

263. The wishes of the local civil authorities should also be ascertained as to headway and width of span in the case of all bridges over navigable rivers.

264. The correct spelling of all towns and villages included in the survey should be taken from the Alphabetical List of Stations, the Gazetteer or, if not found in either, from the civil authorities.

265. As soon as possible after the field work of a survey has been finished, the local civil authorities should be supplied by the Railway Administration with an Index Plan, and requested to supply data necessary for preparation of estimates of the cost of land for the projected railway (cf. para 901 et. seq.)

266. Local Governments or Administration should be supplied direct by the Railway Administration with a copy of the project report and construction estimate, together with an index plan and section on a scale of one cm. to 0.5 km. on which should be shown the size and positions of all waterways and level crossings to be provided. The local Governments or Administration concerned should, at the same time, be asked to express their views on the following points which, on receipt, should be forwarded to the Railway Board;

267. Quarterly Progress Report.---- Commencing from the quarter in which a Survey is sanctioned, a report showing the progress of the survey during each quarter (ending 31st March, 30th June, 30th September and 31st December as the case may be) should be submitted regularly in form below (E. 267) so as to reach the Railway Board before the 25th day of the month following the close of the quarter. The submission of the progress report may be discontinued after the Survey Report is submitted to the Railway Board.

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Form E - 267

Progress Report of Surveys

.......................................................................... Railway.

Progress Report for the Quarter ending .......................................................

(1) Name of work ........................................................................

(2) Sanction No. & date .............................................................

(3) Cost .......................................................................................................

(4) Date of Sanction of work ....................................................................

(5) Date of actual commencement of :

(i) Engineering Survey ........................................................................................................

(ii) Traffic Survey ................................................................................................................

(6) Actual percentage of Progress obtained by the end of the month.............................  ..........................................................................................................................................

(a) Field work.

(i) Engineering Survey ............................................................................................

(ii) Traffic Survey .......................................................................................................

(b) Recess work.

(i) Engineering Survey ............................................................................................

(ii) Traffic Survey ......................................................................................................

(7) Target on which the Engineering and Traffic Survey reports should be submitted to the Board's  office. ...................................................................................................

(8) Special difficulties if any in progress of the surveys and in the compilation of the report...... .............................................................................................................................................  ..............................................................................................................................................

268. Feasibility Studies. Before commencing Project Investigation relating to investments involving augmenting line capacity, improving terminal facilities or repair facilities, the Project Investigator must ascertain from the user department the requirements of the user. Before proposals for new marshalling yards, goods or passenger terminals and transship yards etc., are formulated, work study teams should go into the actual working in the yard etc. (refer para 604-E). The Project Investigator must keep the results of such studies in view while investigating the schemes. After developing the proposals the plans must be got approved and signed by the concerned departments to avoid the substantial modifications at a subsequent stage (refer para 604-E). Estimates must be based on such approved plans only.

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CHAPTER III

TRAFFIC SURVEY

301. Definition of Traffic Survey.Traffic Survey is a detailed study of the traffic conditions of an area or Section with a view to assessing the traffic prospects and the financial implications of new line projects, restorations, other traffic facilities like gauge conversions schemes, doublings or major line capacity works.

302. Objects of the Traffic Survey.-The decision on any new projected Railway system or gauge conversion etc. can be arrived at only after the economic study of the project. Traffic Survey attempts to arrive at an assessment of the total traffic likely to be generated in the foreseeable future with special reference to the catchment area and the inter-model allocation of total streams of traffic between rail and road.

303. The earnings and working expenses should be computed for each year of the economic life of the project-which may be taken as 30 years-so that based on the annual cash flow and applying the DCF Technique, the project may be appraised to see whether it will yield the minimum acceptable rate of return of 10%.

304. Terms of Reference.-An experienced Administrative Officer of the Traffic (Commercial or Operating) Department should as a rule, be entrusted with the work of Traffic Survey. To ensure that the estimates of anticipated traffic, capital costs and recurring expenses etc. are realistic and the financial appraisal of the project including the phasing of investments and return at each stage are worked out as correctly as possible and with a great deal of objectivity, an Account Officer of appropriate status-Senior Scale or Administrative Grade-experienced in Traffic Costing should be associated with the Traffic Survey Officer from the inception and work in close association with the survey team. The Chief Engineer in charge of the Engineering survey of the project will also be in overall charge of the traffic survey of the project and the traffic survey report will be prepared under his general guidance in order to ensure that the most economic proposals are formulated. The traffic survey team should be supplied by the Railway Administration, with terms of reference containing instructions regarding the scope and nature of the investigations to be carried out. The traffic survey team should also visit the headquarters at various intervals both during the progress of the work in the field and during the period of recess in order to consult the General Manager and other principal Officers, and where necessary, have the original terms of reference modified by the competent authority. This is necessary in order that the Main line Administration may fully determine the design of the new line etc. under investigation.

305. Field Work.-The Traffic Survey team should also work in close collaboration with the Engineering Survey Party, if there is one in the field at the same time, and while collecting information should visit all trade centres in the area, consult local authorities and prominent citizens freely, both as regards trade and industry and the most suitable alignment for the proposed Railway line.

306. In the case of a New Line Project, the information to be collected by the traffic survey team should emanate from a study of the economic base of the area surveyed from the following angles :

However, while the forecast of traffic requirements given by other departments or Government Organisations may be kept in view, the team should make its own assessment based on such information which should be capable of being verified independently, regarding the setting up of specific industries and consequent growth of traffic requirements for movement of raw materials to and finished products from such industries. The survey team must probe deep into the various stages of scheduling of the project e. g. what commitments have been entered into by the Project authorities and whether the progress in execution of the Project is adequate to justify any specific claim in respect of anticipated traffic.

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307. Methodology to be adopted in the assessment of traffic prospects and traffic forecasting-The traffic survey team should adopt the following methods, as appropriate to each component of traffic in making assessment of Potential traffic prospects :

308. The following further guidelines should be observed by the traffic survey team in estimating the earnings :

(i) earnings should be assessed for each commodity and for the lead from its origin or source upto the point of termination of the traffic. In assessing the additional earnings, credit should be taken only for that portion of traffic which would not have been carried by the Railways but for the construction of the new line, etc. Further only the additional traffic beyond the optimum existing capacity should be reckoned for financial appraisal.

(ii) When part of the lead is over the contiguous Railway system, it should be ensured that the other Railway does not take credit for the same traffic to justify some other works. For this purpose, a proper co-ordination among the concerned Railways will be necessary. It should at the same time, be ensured that in case line capacity works or terminals or other facilities are to be undertaken in the contiguous section/Railway system, the project estimate should include the cost of such additional line capacity works and other facilities required to move the traffic anticipated to be generated from time to time during the life of the project. It has to be ensured that extraneous works not connected with the objectives of the scheme are not included. Where another Zonal Railway system is involved, that Railway may be c consulted in defining the scope and cost of such works. In case it is considered that adequate line capacity exists in the contiguous section or Railways system so that the additional traffic on the new line can be carried throughout its lead on the Railway without any hindrance, the Railway should certify that no additional works would be required to be undertaken anywhere on the system to carry this traffic. Where some other Zonal Railways are involved, the certificate to be given should be in consultation with those Railways.

(iii) In cases where one or more of the various works included in the group justification for a project are self-contained, selection of priorities after consideration of various alternatives should be done with a view to sub-optimisation, i. e., to realise the optimum benefit for the project by substituting less remunerative works by those expected to yield a higher return.

309. Estimates of Gross Earnings of a New Line Project.--The estimates of coaching and goods earning should be made separately and the results obtained compared with the statistics of existing similar lines. For this purpose the comparison should be made of.

310. For estimating coaching earnings, assessment should first be made of the passenger traffic handled by the existing modes of traffic. This can be done by taking a sample count of the existing passenger traffic moving between different points on the section and on the contiguous existing rail sections. This count can be taken over two spells of 3 days each, as far as possible, one each during the peak and the slack season, should give a break up of the number of passengers moving by various public transport like buses and taxis as also by private means.

311. Deleted.

312. The following statistics to the section should be obtained :

The population of the area (to be served by the new line) in the following details :

Based on this data an assessment of the following should be made :

Note :-In this context "Local" means between two stations on the section and "inter-changed" means between stations on the section on the one hand and stations outside the section on the other.

This data should be compared with similar data for a section of the existing line of approximately the same length as the proposed line and passing through a comparable tract of land. After allowing for any differences in the section selected for comparison and the section to be built, separate estimates should be arrived at of;

By adding1 & 2, 3 & 4 separately, the number of passengers and the earnings from `Local Traffic' and `Inter-changed Traffic' should be arrived at. Inter-changed traffic should be doubled to allow for the inward traffic.

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313. By a judicious combination of the data obtained from the sample count and the details regarding the characteristics of population and making use of the comparative rate structure of the existing modes of transport vis-a-vis that of the Railways, attempt should be made to arrive at the likely number of journeys of the both on account of local movement as well as interchanged movement. This information can be further supplemented and corroborated by taking an opinion poll at the existing terminal rail head of the project section, regarding the number of passengers originating on the Railway which have travelled to or from the various locations on the proposed new line section. Based on this, separate estimates should be arrived at of-

Note :-In the context "Local" means between two stations on the section and "Inter-changed" means between stations on the section on the one hand and stations outside the section on the other.

By adding 1 & 2, and 3 & 4 separately, the number of passengers and the earning from "Local Traffic" and "Inter-changed Traffic" should be arrived at. Inter changed traffic should be doubled to allow for the inward traffic.

313. A. The above data can be compared by taking similar information for a section of the existing line approximately the same length as the proposed line and passing through a comparable tract of land. This comparison can further be used to apportion the total anticipated passenger traffic between Second Class and Upper Classes. The data from the comparable section can also be used for estimating the earnings from other coaching traffic as a percentage of passenger earnings.

314. To the earnings thus arrived at a correction should also be made as necessary, based on the industrial development expected in the area and also a suitable addition of passenger traffic and earnings from the periodical melas, fair and festivals etc., in respect of which it should generally be possible to arrive at a fairly accurate figure of pilgrims and other similar traffic.

315. The estimates of inter changed traffic will then have to be split up into those attributable to the project and those for the existing lines. This is necessary for the purpose of arriving at net earnings in as much as the working expenses on the project will differ from those to be incurred for the carriage of additional traffic on the existing lines.

For this purpose the average load of inter-changed passenger traffic of the section chosen for comparison should at first be determined, cross checked with the leads calculated for the new section on the basis of the sample physical counts and then applied to the new section and beyond that section. The earning from inter-changed traffic, as estimated according to para 312 above should be divided in the ratio of the leads to arrive at separate figures of earnings of the project and those of the existing lines, making due allowance for any special features.

In ascertaining the additional traffic to the existing lines, allowance has to be made for that part of the estimated inter-changed traffic which will already be moving over the existing lines.

Assessment of Goods Traffic and Earning of a New Line Project

316. The estimates of goods traffic should be made separately for outward and inward traffic. It should also be assessed for each commodity and for the lead from its origin or source upto the point of termination of the traffic even beyond the section under construction.

317. For the purpose of the assessment of goods traffic the information collected in terms of para 306 should be studied carefully in order to select the important agricultural commodities, cash crops and products of mining etc. which are peculiar to the area. Similarly, the important industries which are likely to have a substantial transport requirement should also be identified. Other commodities which are of minor importance to the area could be grouped together under the head General Goods.

318. Apart from the commodity-wise assessment of traffic, the goods traffic that will be secured by new line may be grouped into (a) short distance; and (b) long distance traffic. Before crediting the line with any anticipated short distance traffic, the pattern and conditions of trade and commerce should be examined to ascertain whether the Railway will be used as a means of transport in preference to road for this purpose. Over a short lead, the door-to-door convenience of road transport added to the other advantages, frequently out-weighs any small financial saving offered by rail transport. The position of established markets has an important bearing on this matter. If there is a market on the proposed line, it is likely to develop and attract part of the exportable surplus of the area, in which case this produce will become long distance traffic and proposed line would get the benefit of the lead involved.

The volume of short distance and long distance traffic should be carefully calculated from the observations and enquiries made on the spot and it should be possible to determine the quantum as well as the probable lead of such traffic. The assessment should consider the aspect that in the case of traffic which in any case will have to move by rail for the available rail lead only the extra lead provided by rail by the construction of the proposed line should be taken into accounts.

319. The statistics which will be of value in arriving at the anticipated outward traffic will be :-

The possibility of development and the likelihood of an increased area being put under cultivation with the provision of better transport facilities should also be taken note of. In the case of industries the outward movement of the traffic in finished products of the industries should be ascertained by making suitable local enquiries. The traffic likely to arise on tapping of mineral and forest resources, if any, in the area as also likely to develop on the implementation of multi-purpose projects under various schemes of the Government's Plans should also be duly taken into account.

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320. Goods Earning from Inward Traffic.-For estimating the inward goods traffic the average import of food stuff per head of population and the average weight of other imports such as raw-material, machinery, agricultural implements, clothing etc. will have to be ascertained. The imports of coal and other raw-materials for the factories, mills or other industries to be set up or already in operation should be computed by enquiries in the appropriate quarters.

321. In assessing the goods traffic that will be available for movement by rail, the utilisation of existing transport system such as, road, river steamers, pipelines etc. should be carefully studied and a judicious estimate of the diversion to rail made, taking into consideration the comparative freight charges by different modes, due allowance being made for the possibility of any new inward traffic also being carried by the other alternative means of transport. Information regarding the existence of various road transport, network of road in the area and the percentange of their utilisation should be given. The team could also request/suggest any improvement in the road facilities by way of feeder roads etc. to reach the rail heads projected on the new lines.

322. The figures of inward goods traffic on an existing similar section of the line should also be studied and compared with those worked out for the proposed line.

323. The estimates of goods traffic thus made should be cross-checked by the application of statistical techniques such as regression analysis of economic activity in relation to the movement of commodities in the area, choosing those commodities which are likely to move in bulk or have a definite relation to a specific economic activity e. g., building construction activity.

324. In reckoning the financial prospects of a proposed new line, credit should be taken on the net revenue derived from all traffic brought on to the existing lines as a direct result of the construction of the breach after making suitable allowance for the traffic which is already moving through the existing rail head or which in any case would move by rail from the already available rail head. It is necessary, therefore, to estimate all such traffic separately; and for this purpose the destination of all probable export should be ascertained so as to determine the lead of this traffic both in the proposed new line as well as over the main system.

325. After the assessment of coaching and goods traffic has been made the next step should be to determine the number of trains (passenger and goods) the loads, the directions and pattern of movement (origin and destination of important traffic flows) the type of equipment to be used and the facilities for marshalling and terminals required etc.

326. The following statistical indices of performance will then be compiled :-


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Existing line Project line
Existing traffic Additional traffic Existing traffic Additional traffic

Freight traffic-

Coaching / passenger traffic-

In case any difficulty is experienced in converting the tonnes into wagons the figures of average starting loads (separately for originating and transhipped traffic) shown in the monthly wagon loading statements of the existing line may be adopted. Otherwise the minimum weight condition as per good tariff may be taken into account.

327. Empty haulage should be carefully calculated taking into account the outward and inward traffic commodity-wise and equipment-wise. The source of empties should also be indicated so that the empty haulage may be reasonably assessed. Otherwise, the following norms may be adopted :-
 

BFRs. Oil tanks. BOBs. BOI and Special types, etc. (BG & MG) 100%
POL, Traffic, iron ore traffic, industrial raw material to steel plants, etc. (BG & MG). 100%
Coal-Average B. G.  80%
Other commodities-BG 25%
MG (including coal) 30%

 The correct estimate of empty haulage is very essential, as this element appears in the calculation of-

328. Marshalling Yards.-The survey report should specify the inward, outward and cross traffic dealt with at different marshalling yards on the projected line and the existing main line. This should be separately assessed for the existing traffic and additional traffic. The loaded journeys as well as the empty journeys of wagons should be taken into account. In case the pattern of traffic is such that it by-passes the marshalling yard detention to stock for carriage and wagons trains examination for engine changing or crew changing should also be taken into account.

329. Assessment of Working Expenses-In relation to any capital expenditure proposal, the working expenses will consist of :-

330. The working expenses should be assessed by making full use of the traffic costing data relevant to investment proposal under consideration. Correct application of the cost data and in particular, assessment of the direct variable and indirect/fixed or semi-variable cost is very important in arriving at a realistic estimate of the working expenses. For new line construction, restorations working expenses should be estimated in detail under the various heads of the prescribed classification of revenue working expenses and should be cross-checked with relevant cost data. In case of wide variations between the costs worked out by the above mentioned two modes, the reasons therefore should be explained given also adequate justification for using either of the cost data in the financial analysis.

331. In applying the unit cost data for working out the cost of moving the additional anticipated traffic, it has to be considered whether it would be reasonable to adopt the incremental cost approach, or to take fully distributed cost into account, Logically, it would be realistic to work on the basis of incremental cost for any small increase in traffic and over the short run. In the long run, however, even the so called fixed cost will vary and the incremental or marginal cost may fail to cover such semi-variable expenses. On the other hand, it would be equally unreasonable to apply fully distributed cost in all cases while working out the financial implications of a line capacity work. A realistic (though some what conservative) approach would, therefore, be to adopt long term variable costs which will ensure not only that projects are not thrown out because of adoption of the fully distributed cost but also that a project is considered as remunerative if it meets the long term variable cost.

332. Working expenses should be computed separately as direct costs, comprising of terminal cost for documentation, other terminal cost, transhipment cost if involved, marshalling cost, cost for maintenance of carrying units, line haul cost-traction, line haul cost-other transportation expenses and line haul cost-track and signalling. To these direct cost must be added overhead charges (Railway) and overhead charges (Central) wherever required. An escalation factor may also be added to bring the cost up-to-date.

333. In calculating line haul traction costs, the nature of movement should be taken into account, i. e. whether the traffic is carried by shunting and van trains or by through trains. The cost characteristics are different and relevant unit costs should be adopted. If the type of traction of the line haul is not defined or specifically known then all traction figures are adopted. Unit cost data by identifying the type of traction is more refined and, therefore, by taking note of special characteristics of operation the cost may be estimated with higher degree of accuracy.

333-A. While compiling data on the existing modes of transport, efforts should also be made to ascertain the cost of operation of these modes for both passenger and goods traffic. This information should consist of the details regarding the types of vehicles moving on the existing means of transport, their capital cost and average operating expenditure. In the case of road vehicles, which is the main alternative transport, the physical performance characteristics like average load per trip, average length of haul and the average vehicle kms. per day in addition to the detention time at the loading and unloading points should be collected. This information should facilitate a national level comparison of costs between the rail and road modes for carrying anticipated volumes of traffic. This information should be utilised to find out whether the commercial viability of a rail project is corroborated by a comparison between the cost to economy at market prices of the available means of transport.

Line Capacity Works

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334. Analysis of existing capacity.-Proposals for new marshalling yards or major yard modelling of the existing marshalling yards, goods terminals and transit yards etc. should be preceded by work study. The existing capacity should be properly evaluated by preparation of master charts for doubleings, multiple tracking schemes and gauge conversion schemes. In the case of passenger terminals occupation charts of the platform lines, washing and stabling lines etc. should be prepared and analysed. In the case of goods yards and marshalling yards etc. the capacity should be worked out in terms of average detentions of trains etc.

335. The optimum capacity with the existing facilities should first be worked out. Thereafter, based on the projections of traffic, the gap in the availability of capacity and likely requirement should be identified and alternative solutions to create requisite capacity in phased manner should be considered. For instance, on a single line section, the possibility of improving capacity by having improved speeds, heavier/longer trains, change of traction, provision of additional crossing stations, token less block working, etc. should be explored and if the gap cannot be abridged, the alternatives of patch doubling in suitable phases or introduction of CTC should be considered. Likewise in the case of gauge conversion schemes, which are capital intensive, entailing a longer lead time, the possibility of improving the capacity on metre gauge system itself, if necessary, by doubling of critical patches should also be considered, coupled with steps to improve transhipment by mechanisation (pallatisation, containerisation) etc. This is particularly relevant in respect of truck routes which are connected with a large number of branch lines with the result while transhipment on conversion at the terminals may be eliminated, creation of smaller transhipment points enroute to serve the branch lines may not necessarily result in size able reduction in the overall transhipment load. Before considering provision of third/quadruple lines, the alternative of improved signalling arrangements like automatic signalling, absolute permissive block working etc. should also be examined.

336. In regard to yard remodellings the objectives of the remodelling of any yard can be one or the other or a combination of the following:

While formulating proposals for remodelling of marshalling yards, the following guidelines should be kept in view :

As regards item (i), it may be difficult to quantify benefits in financial terms of removal of such constraints, particularly when the same also depends on changes in pattern of traffic, etc. In such cases, it would be reasonable to take up such works, which by their very nature are likely to be very minor, as operating improvements chargeable to Development Fund/OLWR as the case may be. In this category will fall works which would assist in efficient handling of local traffic/cross traffic, etc. which would also improve fluidity of the yard, such as provision for certain cross overs, extension of shunting neck or of classification/reception and despatch lines and provision of waiting bay lines etc.

As regards item (ii) mentioned above, for this purpose it would not be correct to treat individual yards for financial evaluation on the basis of saving in detention. For handling additional traffic, apart from inputs in marshalling yards, certain investments on line capacity may also be necessary. In such cases it would be desirable to form a group justification of viable sections between two marshalling yards or engine runs on a particular route falling on the same zonal railway or more than one railway. On the cost side, all the works required in the yard as well as on increasing line capacity/transhipment capacity on such portions (including on other Railways) should be taken and on the benefit side, the additional earnings from such traffic for the entire lead including that on the other Railways should be taken into account. The guidelines given in para 308 will be equally applicable here. Further, if any worthwhile saving in detention for existing traffic is anticipated because of the improved facilities, there is no objection to credit being taken therefore. But here also credit should be taken only for the net saving in detentions over the entire section between two marshalling yards, on engine runs or a particular route, as the case may be.

As regards item (iii), the objective of long distance marshalling is to speed up movement by skipping intermediate yards. If this is related to movement of additional traffic it would be covered by item No. (ii) above. On the other hand, for the existing level of traffic, there may be increase in detention in the marshalling yard which undertakes long distance marshalling while there would be saving in detention in respect of such traffic in the intervening marshalling yards although certain residual traffic in the latter may suffer increased detention on account of poorer materialisation thereof. In such a case, an overall view of saving as well as increased detention in all the yards in the project section should be taken into account and credit should be taken only for the net saving in detentions.

337. Working out financial savings.-For assessing financial savings from the avoidance or reduction of detention to rolling stock the quantum of detention should be assessed by sample survey during two to three months of each of busy and slack seasons of traffic. The financial benefit will usually consist of the savings in operation cost only. No credit should be taken for interest and depreciation saved unless the detention works out to whole unit (not fraction of the locomotive or wagon saved).

338. In working out financial evaluation, only additional traffic beyond the optimum extising capacity should be reckoned. In case of line capacity works, apart from taking credit for additional earnings, wherever creation of additional line capacity results in speedier movement and consequent savings in detention or lower working expenses, the credit therefor can also be taken. For instance, when double line working is introduced on a single line section, apart from enabling higher volume of traffic, the speeds of the trains, utilisation of rolling stock etc. also improves and such savings can also be evaluated in addition to taking credit for earnings.

339. The technique involving the application of "queueing theory" can be adopted with a advantage to arrive at optimum solutions to reduce detentions. The queueing or bottleneck problem arises when the service rate of a facility falls short of the flow rate of arrival pattern of the customers or units requiring to be serviced. The classic examples of queue formation in railway working are booking offices, marshalling yards, carriage and wagon depots etc. The obvious remedy to resolve delays on account of queueing is to provide more servicing units or to improve the service time. Alternatively the regulation of arrival patterns of units requiring servicing can also be examined. The exact quantification of additional, facilities requires the application of queueing theory models.

340. Provision of rolling stock.-In all cases of line capacity works as well as new line constructions which are justified on the basis of carrying additional traffic, the initial investment should be inclusive of the cost of rolling stock for which provision should be made on the basis of tonnage to be carried, the loadability, the lead of the traffic, empty haulage and wagon turn round etc. The financial return should be measured with reference to the overall initial cost of the work including cost of the rolling stock.

341. Working capital should also be included in the cost of the scheme.

342. Technique of financial appraisal of railway projects.-The technique of Discounted Cash Flow Method is adopted for working out the financial appraisal of railway projects. For details of working out the financial appraisal reference may be made to Chapter II of Indian Railway Financial Code.

343. Under D. C. F. technique of financial appraisal, the cash flow by definition should take into account only the realistic earnings and cash expenditure or in the case of expenditure reducing projects the net reduction in expenditure. Purely, accounting adjustments such as depreciation and other provision are to be completely ignored. The discounting rate of interest which is applied to the cash flows during the life of the project after it is commissioned will also apply to the investments made in the earlier years to bring it up-to-date as the year of commissioning.

344. Residual value.--Each project will have an estimated life span at the end of which various assets will be disposed of or put to other uses. At the end of this life of the project, an estimate should be made of the flow of funds that will be credited by the sale or disposal of the assets so that appropriate credit can be given to the project in the year in which the flow of funds occurs by the sale or disposal of assets. Since the assets may not all be discarded or sold at the same time, the cash flows resulting from residual values should be allocated to the year in which they are likely to be received. If some of the assets are to be taken out of service and disposed of before the termination of the project, this must be recognised at the appropriate time.

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345. Time span for appraisal.-For financial appraisal useful life of the asset should be taken as 30 years.

346. Project viability.-A railway project should be accepted as financially remunerative only if it gives a rate of not less than 10% by DCF technique.

347. Traffic Survey Report.-At the conclusion of the survey, a report should be formulated by the officer-in-charge of the survey. The format of report will be governed largely by the nature of the terms of reference and the investigations made. The following format of the report which may be treated as a general guideline-may be adopted :

348. A clear index map showing all relevant information should accompany the report, in particular all towns and places referred to in the report should be clearly shown in the index map. The details of information collected, calculations and diagrams should be embodied in tables as annexures to the report.

349. Documentation of data.-The number and form of annexures to Report will vary according to the nature of investigation. The following list may be treated as a general guideline in this connection.

(1) Potential and prospects.

(2) Analysis of existing modes of transport-

(3) Time-table of proposed train services.

(4) Revenue projections-passenger

(5) Revenue projections-goods

(6) Rolling stock

(7) Working expenses.

(8) Capital investment.

(9) Financial appraisal

350. Covering note.-The traffic survey report and annexures should be submitted to the Railway Board under a covering note which should have the authority of the Railway Administration submitting the report. It should provide a summing up and should contain clear recommendation together with the views of Financial Adviser and Chief Accounts Officer.

351. A synopsis of the salient features of the project should be provided in the report. The following data may be treated as a guideline in this connection :

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CHAPTER IV

ENGINEERING SURVEY RECONNAISSANCE -  PRELIMINARY AND FINAL LOCATION SURVEYS

Reconnaissance Survey

401. Terms of Reference. - The Project Investigator should be supplied by the Railway Administration with "Terms of Reference" as indicated in para 209.

402. Field Work.-In carrying out a Reconnaissance Survey particular attention should be paid to ascertaining the waterway required, and the best sites for stations, crossings of streams, bridges and roads. The nature of foundation which would be required for large bridges should be investigated and recorded. Materials and labour available in the area covered by the Survey should be taken note of.

403. Ruling gradient and degree of curvature for the proposed line as indicated in the "Terms of Reference" are to be considered as broad guide-line and the survey team should examine the question in detail taking into account the topography of the area, the level of traffic, the speeds envisaged, the mode of traction and above all the initial cost of construction and the unit cost of service with different alternative, and make their own recommendations. Prior approval of the Administration should be obtained before proceeding further with the survey in case a change in the terms of reference is considered desirable.

404. Report.-The report submitted after the conclusion of the survey should, as prescribed for a Feasibility Study (cf. Paragraph 501 et seq.) It should contain a definite recommendation as to whether from the financial point of view the prospects of the line surveyed are such as to make it worthwhile to undertake further investigation with a view to the construction of the project. It should be accompanied by an estimate for the construction of the line.

405. Estimate.-The form of the estimate and the amount of detail to be contained in it will depend on the character and amount of the data collected, but an approximate abstract estimate of the cost of the line surveyed in Form E. 554 accompanied by an abstract estimate of the cost of Junction Arrangements and a detailed estmate of the cost of one kilometre of permanent-way (Form E. 553) are essential and should be submitted with the report. The methods by which the figures in the Abstract Estimate have been deducted should be clearly explained in the report.

406. Maps.-The reports and estimate should be accompanied by a map of the area on a scale of 25 Km. to 1 cm. an index map on a scale of 2.5 Km. to 1 cm. and by an index plan and section on a scale of 0.5 Km. to 1 cm. horizontal and 10 m. to 1 cm. vertical the proposed route or routes being marked on them in red, and all towns and places referred to in the report clearly shown therein.

407. Covering Note.-The report, plans and estimates should be submitted to the Railway Board under a covering note as prescribed in para 545.

Preliminary Survey

408. Terms of Reference.-The Project Investigator should be supplied by the Railway Administration with the "Terms of Reference" as indicated in para 209.

409. (i) Field Work.-The field work of a preliminary survey should include a compass traverse along one or more routes with such longitudinal and transverse levels as are sufficient to prepare a "Predicted Section" of the route or routes proposed.

(ii) Where suitable aerial photographs are available, for carrying out preliminary survey by photogrammetric techniques, the "predicted section" of the route or routes proposed will be determined by plotting of contoured strip maps on 1 : 10,000 scales from aerial photographs.

Geological mapping may be done and soil surveying by photo-interpretation of remotely sensed data.

(iii) The field work should also cover a soil survey by sampling at suitable intervals, in order to obtain a fair idea of the soil classification and characteristics on the proposed route/routes. Testing of disturbed soil samples is usually adequate but Geophysical survey may be done in rocky terrain.

410. (i) The alignment need not be fully staked out with a theodolite, but stone pillars or other permanent marks should be left on the ground and indicated on the plans so that the location can be readily picked up by subsequent survey parties. Bench marks should similarly be left at intervals of about 500 mts.

(ii) Where suitable aerial photographs are available, for carrying out preliminary survey by photogrammetric technique, it will suffice if centre line pillars are provided at approaches of important bridges and portals of tunnels, important road crossings and stations sites. Bench marks should be provided near all important bridges, tunnels sites and road crossings. All these together with identifiable points should be indicated on the plan so that their location can be picked by subsequent survey parties.

411. In other respects the field work in a Preliminary Survey should approach the standards laid down for a Final Location Survey (cf. paragraph 421 et. seq.). It will depend largely on the nature of the country, and must always be sufficient to obtain a close estimate of the cost of the project.

412. Report.-The report submitted on the conclusion of the Survey should give details as in that prescribed for a Techno Economic Survey (cf. paragraph 501 et seq.).

413. Estimate.-The report should be accompanied by an estimate of the cost of the project surveyed. The rules laid down for the preparation of estimates on a Final Location Survey should be followed as closely as possible.

414. The method adopted for arriving at the figures of cost must be clearly explained in the report.

415. An estimate prepared on a Preliminary survey should under ordinary circumstances be sufficiently accurate to enable the competent authority to decide whether sanction should be accorded to the construction of the line.

416. The Railway Board may in certain instances call for estimates on a Preliminary Survey to be submitted as prescribed for a Final Location Survey. When such estimates have not been called for, the estimates to be submitted on a Preliminary Survey will be those detailed below :

Head of Account    Particulars Form
(a) Capital 1120 Land E. 553
(b) Capital 1132  Tunnels E. 553
(c) Capital  1151-53 Major Bridges E. 553
(d) Capital 1154-56 Minor Bridges E. 553
(e) Capital 1140 Detailed estimate of one km. of permanent way E. 553
(f) Capital  2000 Rolling-stock E. 553
(g) Capital  1180-90  General Charge E. 553

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Note. Classification indicated are those corresponding to New lines and shown as example.

417. Maps & Plans. The report and estimates should be accompanied by the same maps as for a reconnaissance surveys and by plan and section on a scale of 0.1 Km. to 1 cm. horizontal and 10 metres to 1 cm. vertical.

418. (i) The detailed plans and sections and other drawings, as prescribed for a Final Location Survey should be made out with as much detail as the information obtained in the field will allow out need not be submitted with the report and estimates unless called for by the Railway Board.

(ii) Where, suitable-aerial photographs are available for carrying out preliminary Survey or photogrammetric techniques, the scale of detailed plans and sections may be 100 m. to 1 cm. Horizontal and 10 m. to 1 cm. vertical instead of 50 m. to 1 cm. horizontal and 5 m. to 1 Centimetre vertical as prescribed in Para 452.

419. Covering Note.-The report, plans and estimates should be submitted to the Railway Board under a Covering Note as prescribed in para 545.

Final Location Survey

420. Terms of Reference.-The Project Investigator should be supplied by the Railway Administration with "Terms of Reference" as indicated in para 209.

421. Field Work.--A Final Location Survey should be based on a good theodolite or traverse, which should approximate as closely as possible to the centre line to be finally adopted.

422. Unless otherwise specified the survey operations should be sufficiently comprehensive to secure the information necessary for the preparation of the detailed plans and sections required under paragraph 443 et seq. and, having regard to all the circumstances of the case (including the probable working expenses), to ensure that the alignment selected is the most economical obtainable.

423. The amount of detail in sectioning will, to a great extent depend on the nature of the country traversed. Gross sections should be taken wherever the Engineer considers them necessary. The information collected during the course of the survey should be such as will enable the preparation of a fairly accurate estimate of the cost of the line.

424. Investigations should be made of bunds, bunded streams and irrigation works in the vicinity of the projected line which might affect the future safety of the line. In arriving at decision on the waterwaysthe engineer should pay due regard to these works and consider the alternative of altering or diverting the bunds, irrigation streams etc., even it would mean incurring some expenditure on such alternations, if that would save a larger expenditure on the waterways.

425. In the case of passage through hills, the geological characteristics of the country should be investigated by the Engineer, particularly in respect of the probable stability of the line, and if the importance of the work requires it, the Railway Administration should apply for the assistance of an officer of the Geological Survey of India.

As the method of construction of earthwork will be dependent largely on the nature and classifications of the soils a systematic soil sampling at suitable intervals and upto sufficient depths depending upon the nature of terrain should also be done all along the proposed route. Wherever borrow areas are not located along the alignment soil samples should be collected from such places also. These samples shall then be tested for the standard properties, bore logs prepared and the data used for designing the profiles of the embankments and cutting foundations of important structures as well as the method of undertaking the earthwork.

426. Notes to be Made in the Field.-During the Survey, careful notes with dates should be made on the ground, from personal enquiry and observation regarding any information likely to be useful in working out the details of the project.

427. The Centre Line.--The unit of measurement for the centre line should be the chain of 20 metres. The centre line finally located should be marked out by pegs at every 20 metres. At each 100 metres a large peg should be used; these 100 metres pegs should have their numbers branded or stamped on them in figures not less than 25 mm high. The numbers branded on the pegs should indicate hundreds of metres; thus 57 would mean a distance of 5700 from the zero chainage.

428. Masonry pillars should be built at the tangent points of curves and along the centre line at intervals of not less than 500 metres.

Curves will generally be described by their radius of curvature in metres but may also be expressed in degrees as defined above for convenience in setting.

429. Curve.--Curves should be defined both by their "degrees of curvature" in degrees and minutes and by their radius in metres. The degrees of curvature should be taken as the angle at the centre subtended by an arc of 30.5 metres in length. The radius of a 10 curve is 1747.52, say 1750 metres; the radius of other curves may be obtained by dividing 1750 metres by the degree of curvature.

430. The apex angle formed by the intersections of the tangent should, if practicable, be observed if not, it should be calculated.

431. Large pegs, distinguished in some suitable manner from the 100 metre pegs, should be put in on the straight at the calculated tangent length from the apex and also at the offset distance (see paragraphs 432 and 433) measured at right angles to the tangent at this point, from which., as a rule, the circular part of the curve is laid out.

432. Transition Curves.-Changes of curvature (whether at the junction of a straight line with a curve or in the middle of a compound curve) should be effected by means of "transition curves". This entails the "offsetting" or "shifting" inwards of circular curves pegged out primarily with a theodolite from the tangent point mentioned in paragraph 431. See also paragraph 218.

433. The amount of "shift" depends on the length of transition curve, which length usually depends on the amount of cant and the distance in which it is run out. See also paragraph 218.

434. Gradients.--Gradients should be defined by the distance in which a rise or fall of one metre occurs per 100 metres length. Thus a rising gradient of 0.5 metre in hundred metres is to be described "Rise 1 in 200 (0.5 per cent)."

435. All lines should be graded with due regard to the possibility of additional intermediate stations being constructed later on.

436. Sharp changes of gradient should be avoided, if possible on curves. All sharp changes of gradient should be eased off by vertical curves.

437. Compensation for Curves on Gradients.--All gradients should be compensated for curvature if the ruling gradient would otherwise be exceeded. The compensation to be allowed should ordinarily be 0.04 per cent degree of curvature on the 1676 mm gauge, 0.03 per cent degree on the metre gauge, 0.02 per cent on the 762 mm gauge, and 0.015 per cent on the 610 mm gauge. Compensation should be allowed on easy curves as well as on sharp ones.

438. Bench Marks.-Bench marks should be left at intervals of not more than one kilometre along the line and at sites of important bridges. In every case the position chosen for a bench mark should be such that it can be conveniently referred to during construction and is, at the same time, not liable to be interfered with during the progress of construction.

439. Bench Marks should be of such character or construction as not to be readily moved or injured by accident or mischief. All bench marks should be so placed and marked as to be easily identified and their correct description and location should be recorded.

440. Datum for Levels.-The datum to which all levels should be referred is the Mean Sea Level as adopted for the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India. During the progress of the survey and location of the line every opportunity should be taken to connect the levels with any survey of India level stations in the neighbourhood, and to check the difference between any temporary datum and Mean Sea Level.

441. Compass Bearings-The compass bearing of each tangent should be taken at every curve in level country, and the mean of the readings at the two ends should be recorded as the average bearing for each straight line.

442. In hilly country where curves are frequent it will sufficient to take such bearing at about 2 or 3 places in each kilometre.

443. Plans, Sections and Designs for Works-A set of plans and sections for a project should consist of :-

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444. As exception to this rule, Index Plans and Sections and plans of stations may be longer than 1200 mm if necessary, to enable all the information to be shown on one sheet. In such cases, however the width of 840 mm should still be kept to, and the length in excess which, however, should not exceed 1020 mm should be folded so as not to project beyond the edges of the other sheets.

A Catalogue of maps published by the Survey of India is obtainable from the Director, Map Publication Survey of India, Hathibarkala Estate, Post Box No. 28, Dehradun-24800.

2. The latest information on availability of maps and aerial photographs of the region would be available from the concerned Regional Director of Survey of India.

445. Throughout each set of plans and sections the kilometrage should be reckoned from the same fixed point. This fixed point should, if practicable, be at that end which is in the direction of the nearest sea port with which the line is in through communication by rail, and should be clearly defined on the Index Plan and section and on at least the first and last sheets of the Detailed Plans and sections. If the line takes off from an existing railway station the zero point should be fixed at the centre of the existing station yard, and when it ends at an existing station the end of the survey should be taken as the centre of that station. Each sheet should be plotted in the direction of the through kilometrage so the kilometrage may be read from left to right.

446. The datum used for all plans and sections should be Mean Sea Level, and all heights should be referred to this datum in metres and decimals. If any other datum is adopted for temporary use during the progress of the survey the figures referring to such temporary datum should be reduced to Mean Sea Level before being entered on the plans and sections.

447. On each sheet should be noted a reference number of letter, the name of the Railway or section of railway, the gauge and the scale. The scale may be described in works, and need not be drawn. The magnetic north should be indicated on each map and plan by a line not less than 150 mm. in length.

448. The Index Plan and Section and the first and last sheets of the set of Detailed Plans and Sections should be signed and dated by the Engineer in charge of the survey. Every sheet should be signed and dated by the officer responsible for its preparation.

449. Index Plan and Section-The Index Plan and Section should be drawn to a scale of 0.5 km. to a cm. horizontal and 10 metres to a cm. vertical, the plan being drawn above the section on the same sheet.

450. The Index Plan--On the Index plan should be shown all towns, roads, canals, rivers, hills boundaries of States and districts within a distance of 10 kilometres on each side of the railway. The centre line of the proposed railway should be indicated by a full red line 0.8 mm in thickness. The degree and radius of all curves should be figured. The position of each station should be shown by a red block, the name of the station being given. The kilometrage from the "fixed point" should be marked and figured at every kilometre and the extent of each sheet of the detailed plan shown. Where practicable the Index Plan should be traced from the sheets of the Survey of India map published to a scale of 0.5 km to a cm. the details in the immediate neighbourhood of the railway being filled in or corrected, if necessary, from the information given by the railway survey. For districts where a map to the scale of 0.5 km. to a cm. is not available, the information required should be plotted to that scale from such other maps or data as can be obtained.

451. The Index Section.-The Index Section should show the formation level by a red line; the gradients should be figured, and the height of formation above Mean Sea Level entered at each change of gradient. The position of each important bridge with the name of river and number and size of bridge spans should be indicated, also level crossings with their classification "as special", "A", "B", "C" or "D" class and position of each station with its name and distance from the "fixed point". The kilometrage from the "fixed point" should be marked and figured at every kilometre.

452. Detailed Plans and Sections.-The detailed plans and sections should be drawn to a scale of 50 metres to a cm. horizontal, and 5 metres to a cm. vertical, the plan in each case to be above the section on the same sheet. 5 kilometres of line should be illustrated on each sheet, and the divisions between the sheet in each case should be a kilometre-mark. To admit of the sheets being readily connected, each sheet should have a skeleton outline for a few decametres beyond the kilometre-mark at each end repeated from the adjoining sheets on both the plan section. In difficult or mountainous country, if the Engineer considers it necessary, the plan should be made on a large scale, such as 25 or 10 metres to a cm.

Note. Where the State Governments have prescribed separate scales for plans and sections in respect of acquisition of land for railway projects, such scales should be adopted.

453. The Plan.-On the plan should be shown in detail all features of the country within a distance of 100 metres on each side of the centre line of railway and the boundaries of village lands. The boundaries of different kinds of cultivation, forest, pasture, waste, etc. should also be marked on the plan. The centre line of the proposed line should be indicated by a full red line 0.8 mm in thickness. The position of all masonry centreline pillars and the exact position and description of each bench-mark should be shown.

454. In addition to the foregoing, the following details should be shown, in so far as they lie within a distance of 300 metres on either side of the centre line :

455. Care should be taken to give sufficient topographical details to exhibit the contour of the ground and to justify the alignment selected.

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456. All new works proposed for the purposes of a new railway line or for the accommodation of the public should be marked on the plan, also all alterations, diversions, protection works & c., proposed in connection with existing railways, roads, rivers, canals or tanks. The "pattern for detailed plan" given at the end of this book should be taken as a model for this purpose.

457. In the case of a junction with an existing railway, the plan should show the existing line for not less than one kilometre on each side of the proposed junction, the proposed junction arrangements and the position on all buildings, bridges, level crossings, kilometre posts and other works on, or marked and the angle of curvature noted.

458. The Section.--On the section, the formation level should be shown by a red line, the ground line being black. If practicable, throughout each sheet, the ground line and formation should be continuous, i. e., without "steps" or changes of datum; for long length of steep ruling gradients it is advisable to incline and "step" the datum line.

459. Two sets of heights or level should be given (1) Height of ground above Mean Sea Level, and (2) Height of formation above Mean Sea Level. The first set of figures showing ground level should be the lowest in position, i. e., nearest the bottom of the sheet. The heights of or levels should be given in metres to two places of decimals and entered at every 20 metres, vertical ordinates being ruled up to connect the figures with the ground line. These vertical lines should be in blue, except where they occur at a change of gradient where they should be red. A model "pattern for detailed section" is given at the end of this book.

460. The bed level and high flood level of all rivers and streams should be shown; also the position, description and (level to two places of decimals) of all bench-marks and position of all masonry pillars.

461. Gradients should be entered in a plain and conspicuous manner. At each change of gradient an ordinate should be drawn in red up to formation level, and the height of formation noted to two places of decimals. Where a change of gradient occurs at any point other than at the 20 metres marks, the chainage of changing point should be noted.

462. In addition to the above important details, such as the tangent points of all curves, the kilometrage and chainage, the general description of the soil, the position of all bridges, level crossings & c., and the points where roads or waterways are diverted; should be shown.

*For a set of tracings submitted to the Railway Board, it will suffice it heights or levels are entered at every 200 metres instead of at every 20 metres.

463. Tunnels should be drawn to scale on the section, and the length in metres should be noted in each case.

464. A station should be indicated by a vertical red line at each and drawn upwards from formation level to define the limits of the station yard. The name of the station and the length in metres of the station yard should be noted.

465. Where cross sections have been taken, a reference to each should be given on the main section with a vertical line indicating the position. Cross sections may be plotted to a natural scale, both the vertical and horizontal scales being the same as the vertical scale used for the main section 5 metres to a cm. On each cross section the outline of the cutting or embankment should be correctly shown. For many practical purposes it will, however, be possible to give all the information required from cross sections by contour lines on the detailed plans.

466. Cuttings should be graded with special reference to efficient drainge.

467. Plans and Cross Sections of Rivers.-For all rivers requiring a provision of waterway of 110 sq. metres or upwards plans and cross sections showing the following particulars should be furnished, subject to the provisio that the Engineer may exercise his discretion as to the necessity for these plans and sections in mountainous country :-

(a) Plan.-The plan should be drawn to a scale of 50 metres to a cm. of such portion of the river and its affluents as may lie within a distance of about 2 km. from the proposed centre line of the railway, measured from any point on that centre line, or such further distance as the Engineer may consider necessary. The direction of the current should be indicated by arrows.

(b) Cross Section.-Three cross sections of the river bed are required, plotted to a natural scale of 5 metres to a cm. Where the width of the river in flood exceeds 1000 metres this scale may be reduced. With a width from 500 to 1000 metres the cross section should be plotted in two halves. The cross sections should be taken at typical points selected at intervals of about 2 kilometres measured along the centre of the river bed. On each cross section lines are to be drawn to indicate the level of highest known flood, ordinary flood, and ordinary low water, with the reduced level figured on each. On the cross section taken on the centre line of railway an elevation of the proposed bridge should be drawn to scale in its proper position. The chainage should be figured on the cross section. Where borings or trial pits have been sunk, their position, with a note on results, should also be given. The cross sections may be plotted on the same sheet as the plan, or on separate sheets as may be found convenient in each case.

468. Plans of Station Yards. -For stations requiring a special design, a plan of the station yard to a scale of 10 metres to a cm. is required, showing all lines, sidings, platforms, buildings, wells, tanks, water-cranes, ash-pits, turn-tables, traversers, weighbridges, signals, etc. within the boundary of the station yard; also any roads, buildings, etc., lying outside the station yard but immediately adjacent there to-The name of each work or structure should be entered against it on the plan, with such notes and dimensions as may be necessary to define its size, position and purpose for which intended.

469. For other stations, made according to type designs, a plan giving similar information is required for each different type or arrangement adopted. On each type plan should be noted the names of the stations which are to be laid out in general accordance with that plan, with a description of any important variations adopted at one or more of those stations.

470. In designing the station yards the Open Line Administration should be consulted and full provisions should be made for extensions for future developments of traffic, but nothing should be estimated for which is not absolutely essential for dealing with the traffic expected in the first five years of working, everything in excess of this being shown in dotted lines and left to be added when actually required.

471. Plans of Junction Arrangements.--Plans of Junction stations of 10 metres to a cm. similar to the plans prescribed in paragraph 468 for Station Yards are required, showing clearly in full red lines the proposed works necessary to deal with the traffic expected during the first five years of working, and in dotted red lines the provisions made for future development of traffic.

472. Except where the new line is of a different gauge and has entirely its own arrangements, the plans for the junction arrangements should as a rule be prepared by the open line administration in consultation with the Engineer.

473. Detailed Drawings of Structures, etc.-Though many of them are not required for submission to the Railway Board with a construction estimate, drawings of all schemes should be prepared in order that sufficiently accurate estimates can be compiled. These drawings should be carefully recorded for future use.

474. The drawings which are usually required by the Railway Board are as follows :

*******

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CHAPTER V

ENGINEERING SURVEYS PROJECT REPORT, TECHNO ECONOMIC SURVEY REPORT AND FEASIBILITY REPORT

501. Preamble.-At the conclusion of investigation, the Project Investigator shall formulate a Report which is called Project Report if the investigation is based on Final Location Surveys, Project Reports shall be prepared in the format contained in para 502. In the case of Techno-economic Surveys based on Preliminary Engineering-cum-Traffic Survey, Techno-economic Surveys Report shall be formulated as indicated in para 555. If the investigation is a feasibility study based on Reconnaissance Survey then a Feasibility Report shall be prepared (refer para 576).

502. Project Report.--The Project Report may be compiled under chapters as indicated below :

Introduction

503. Introduction.-The contents of this chapters may be presented under the following sections :

504. In the first section the object of the proposed investigation and the history of the past investigations carried out, if any, should be indicated. If any orders of the Government for the present investigation has been issued a reference to this order should be mentioned.

505. In the section dealing with the programme of investigation the organisation adopted for the investigation and the studies made and the work accomplished during the field season may be furnished in a brief narrative form. In the section "Methodology of Investigation" the method adopted for selection of major obligatory points selection of alignments, particularly in difficult terrain, choice of design of important river crossings and important station sites may be enunciated.

506. If the investigation involves any special features like investigation of various alternatives for a major river crossing, traversing of deep ravines, difficult hilly terrain, marshy areas requiring special stabilization studies etc. these may be mentioned in the section "Special Features" in brief.

Characteristics of the project area

507. Characteristics of the Project Area.--In this Chapter the topographical outline of the area and the geological features of the country in so far as these are likely to affect the alignment, probable stability of the line, cost of construction, working expenses or future prospects of the proposed line may be explained. Climatic and rain-fall characteristics and environmental characteristics like presence of corrosive factors, pollution etc., which may have an effect on the design and maintenance of structures, bridges etc., may be brought out. Any plans that are being developed by other agencies for impounding rivers in the project area should be enquired into and indicated. This Chapter should cover the existing means of communication in the Project Area, the availability of access roads to the alignment and the outline of the civil administrations of the area. The extent to which the railway works would interfere with the existing military cantonments, building, rifle ranges, camping grounds, or communications should be brought out, Extent of such interferences, opinion of local military authorities and how their objections, if any, can best be met with and the adoption of bridges to take heavy lorries, guns and other military traffic may be mentioned.

Standards of construction

508. Standards of construction.--This Chapter must present an outline of the standards adopted for the various constituent elements of the Project. The object is to present the terms of reference on which the cost of the project has been framed, which will facilitate the investment decision making authority to review the standards, if necessary, and to make a choice compatible with the traffic prospects and resource availability. The standards of construction may be presented under headings indicated in paras 510 to 523.

509. Gauge. The Gauge adopted for the proposed line and reasons, if any for adopting it, may be stated.

510. Category of Line. The category of line (see para 210) the maximum speed potential of the line, the maximum axle load the loading standard of bridges and the basis for adopting the same may be indicated.

511. Ruling Gradient. The Ruling Gradient adopted and the basis for its selection may be furnished. The maximum length and tonnage of goods trains catred for in the design may be indicated. Calculation regarding the most economical Ruling Gradient may be relegated to an Appendix.

512. Curves. The sharpest degree of curvature adopted, the basis for its adoption and its impact on the projected speed compatible to the category of line may be indicated.

513. Permanent Way.--Rail section adopted, whether welding of rail will be carried out or not, the type and density of sleepers, provided in the Project Estimate may be mentioned.

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514. Ballast.-The type and the depth of ballast cushion provided may be stated.

515. Fixed Structure Clearance. The fixed structure clearance adopted the maximum speed for which various works are designed, and the potential available for increasing speed on the line (particularly in category `A' of BG) may be indicated.

516. Road Crossings. The standards adopted for level crossings and grade separated road crossings may be expounded in brief.

517. Stations.--Spacing of stations in the case of new lines, provisions made for future intermediate stations and the scale of facilities contemplated at the stations may be stated in brief.

518. Residential Accommodation. The scale and extent to which residential accommodation have been included in the project cost may be stated.

519. Station Machinery. Brief indication of the engine changing arrangements, length of each engine run, number of watering stations included in the project (in the case of new lines) and water supply augmentation arrangements covered in the project cost may be furnished.

520. Servicing and Maintenance Facilities. Any servicing and maintenance facilities like repair shops etc. included in the project cost may be stated.

521. Signalling and Telecommunications. The standard of Signalling adopted and the scale of communication facilities provided may be indicated.

522. Traction.-The type of traction proposed may be stated.

Route Selection

523. This Chapter must provide relevant information and data of the various alternative routes examined and must give an insight into the factors influencing the choice of the route adopted for the project. It must at the outset indicate the various alternative routes examined. In presenting the alternatives only routes several kilometres in length should be mentioned. Minor deviations should be discussed in dealing with each main alternative route.

Thereafter the general description of each alignment, clearly defining the "fixed point" or zero from which the kilometrage of the proposed line is reckoned, selection of junction and other stations on the alignment, and short descriptions of river crossing should be expounded. Calculations regarding the cost of "distances", "Curvature", "rise" and "fall" should be relegated to an appendix but reference to these calculations should be made where necessary, in discussing deviations.

The advantages and disadvantages of each alternative route should be discussed and reasons as to why the alignment finally selected is preferred should be furnished.

The total length of the route selected and the length in every State, Division and District and the length of Sections into which the proposed line has been divided for estimating purposes should be indicated.

524. Extensions.-At the time when he is formulating his Report, the Project Investigator should have a much better idea than any one else about the branches and other extension of the proposed lines which are likely to be needed in the near or the distant future; he should record his opinion on the subject under this Chapter even if he has received no definite instructions to that effects.

Project Engineering Estimation of Cost and Construction Schedule

525. Project Engineering.-This section must furnish information and data to the Project Manager to enable him to understand the scope and extent of the project and to assist him in formulating the strategy for execution and management of the project. It must bring to focus the problems likely to be encountered and identify the areas requiring special attention and place the knowledge and information gathered at the investigation stage for evolving optimal solutions. This section must broadly present the information under each of the main heads of the estimate of the cost of the proposed line describing the standards of the work for which the estimate cares for. Information must also be made available regarding the basis of adoption of principal rates to enable the Project Manager to understand the basis of the evaluation of cost of the project and to exercise cost control. The compilation may be done under various heading given in para 526 to 538.

526. Preliminary Expenses.-Under this heading the cost of surveys already carried out and indication of any further investigation which may be required before the commencement of the execution of the proposed line may be furnished.

527. Land.-Remarks as to the width of the land for which the estimate provides, particularly whether provision is made for doubling the line or not and the difficulties which may be expected in acquiring land owing to existing important buildings, religious archeological or other important structures military rights or other special causes should be given. Data regarding cost of land obtained from the Civil Authorities should be relegated to the appendix on "Rates".

528. Formation.-Under this head details should be given regarding formation width on banks and in cuttings; side slopes of banks and cuttings, method of construction of earth work; borrow areas; compaction of soil; use of special blanketing material; provision of sub-banks; with supporting information on soil investigation and results of core drilling wherever necessary: provision for turfing or other protection for banks and cuttings and for repairing them and for topping banks with selected material; sections of tunnels; retaining walls, side drains and catch water drains.

Sometimes there is a discrepancy between the values of bench marks used by various departments of Government or by Railways in the neighbourhood from which the proposed line starts; and any discrepancy and any errors in levels which are known to exist along the proposed line, should be mentioned.

In the case of projects for additional lines and gauge conversions, if any special arrangements are required for controlling the blasting for widening of existing cuttings, the method contemplated at the investigation stage may be indicated.

529. Bridges.-A list of various type of bridges in a tabulated form may be furnished. Detailed description should be given in the remarks column for bridges having a total waterway of 180 lineal metres or 110 sq. metre or more. Any difficulties expected, special methods proposed for construction, materials to be used may be detailed. Special arrangements that may be required for strengthening of existing bridges, if contemplated (particularly in the case of gauge conversions), extension of existing bridges (in the case of provision for additional lines) may be indicated. Method of transporting girder at components, arrangements for erection and launching of girders may be mentioned.

Information regarding the number of lineal metres of waterway per kilometre that for Major and Minor Bridges should be given separately (a "bridge" which has a total waterway of 18 lineal metres or more or which has a clear opening of 12 lineal metres or more in any on one span, is classed as a Major Bridge).

530. Permanent Way.-The possible location of Stores Depots for , P. Way and other stores and any problem likely to be encountered in training out materials may be discussed.

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The nature of ballast, source of supply and quantity per metre provided for in the estimate may be indicated.

The minimum distance between reverse curves provided for in the alignment, the method adopted for laying out transition curves and vertical curves may be furnished.

Any special feature in the manner of linking of track particularly in the case of gauge conversion projects may be outlined.

531. Station Buildings and Residential Quarters.-The scale of facilities provided at various stations and any special architectural treatment that may be needed in the case of important buildings may be indicated. Location of administrative and other offices provided for in the project cost may be dealt with in this section. In the case of residential buildings the description of type of quarters, any planning required for townships, provision of dispensaries, institutes, market places may be highlighted.

532. Notes regarding Station Machinery may be presented under subgroups as indicated below :-

533. Road Crossings-The type of level crossing planned, any diversions of roads contemplated and any difficulties encountered in the execution of grade separated road crossings may be discussed.

534. Equipments-This section should discuss the equipment to be provided giving details separately for :-

Note-In case electric traction is adopted, that should be given covering all details.

535. Rolling Stock-Whether Rolling Stock has been provided for or not in the project cost may be stated. If provided for, full particulars regarding the number and type of engines and other rolling stock should be given with reasons for provisions made, if there are any ferries of floating bridges on the proposed line, the provision made in the estimate should also be specially mentioned.

536. Special Problems-This section may highlight any special problems which may present itself in the execution of the project and should discuss the technical solutions which are contemplated at the investigation.

537. Project Organisation.-The organisational structure required for execution of the project, the proposed headquarters of the Project Manager and other Construction Officers, the administrative division of the constructive activities may be discussed. Health and hygienic conditions are as likely to affect the staff and the provision of necessary medical establishment may be indicated. Suggested plans for providing housing for staff and labour, construction of temporary office buildings may be outlined. Comments regarding the availability of water for construction purposes and also its suitability for the drinking purposes may be given. Procurement of special plant and equipment of construction purposes and the final allocation of the cost of such plants may be indicated.

538. Rate Analysis-An analysis of the principal rates adopted in the estimation of cost and reasons for adopting the same should be given in appendix. for girders of other steel works an analysis of the rates per span and per tonne is necessary. This may also be indicated in the appendix on `Rates'.

539. Statistical Information-Statistical information may be compiled in the following form and furnished in the Report for the purpose of comparison and for the benefit of top management :-

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540. Estimation of Cost.-The methodology adopted in the computation of quantities for earth work, bridges and buildings may be indicated. For estimation of cost detailed estimates in form E-553 together with "Abstract Cost of Project" in Form E-554 and Abstract Estimate of Junction Arrangements in the case of projects relating to construction of new line should be prepared and appended to the report.

541. Investment Schedule.-In addition to the abstract cost, an Investment schedule for the various years of construction programme should be furnished.

542. If any phasing of work is required, the extent of such phasing with reasons thereof and the investment levels for such phasing may be indicated.

543. Construction Programme.-A net work may be developed while preparing detailed estimate for projects costing Rs. 50 lakhs or more if it is appropriate for the type of work undertaken and appended to the Report.

544. The Report should also be accompanied by the following tabulated details (see paragraphs 547 to 552) :-

545. Covering Note.-The Report on the Final of Location Survey, otherwise called the Project Report should be submitted to the Railway Board under a covering note which should have the authority of the Railway Administration submitting the project report. The note should provide a summing up and inter alia state the object of the proposed survey and the circumstances leading to the present investigation. A brief resume of the past performance, present status of traffic movement and future traffic projections must be presented. A brief description of the salient features of the proposed scheme its cost and investment pattern should be given. If any estimate have been submitted previously for the project a comparison should be made between the detailed estimate prepared on the Final Location Survey and that already submitted to or sanctioned by the Railway Board. An explanation should also be given in the note of any material modification made in the project in excess in the estimate over an existing sanctioned estimate. A summary of the financial appraisal and a brief description of the benefit that will accrue from the schemes should be furnished. The note should conclude with the recommendation of the Railway Administration submitting the Report.

546. Arrangement of Documents.-All the documents pertaining to a Final Location Survey Report should be bound in the following order :-

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547. Curve Abstract-  Curve Abstract referred to in Paragraph 543 ante should be in the following ­

 Form E 547   ( Continued to........ List of forms)

 548.          Gradient Abstract:- The  standard form to be used is given below:-

 Form E. 548   (Continued to........ List of forms)

549. Bridge Abstract:- This  abstract should be prepared in the form given below:-       

 Form E.549      (Continued to........ List of forms)

550. Important Bridges:- Details about important bridges should be tabulated as shown in the standard form below:- 

Form E.550   (Continued to........ List of forms)

 551. Station Machinery:- The tabulated details under this head should be in the form below:-

Form E.551     (Continued to........ List of forms)

552. Station and Station Sites:-  Details should be tabulated as shown in the standard form below:- 

Form E. 552    (Continued to........ List of forms)

  553.  Detailed Estimates:- Details of the cost of construction of a proposed line under the various heads of Capital and other Works Expenditure classification should be prepared in the forms that follows . The various detailed estimates of a project are collectively referred to as the “construction estimate “ of the project (see paragraph 710-712) . The name of the project , the gauge and the length in kilometers should be shown on the top of each of the several parts constituting the “Construction Estimate” shown below.  In the forms indicated below the plan heads corresponding to new lines (Construction) has been shown. Depending on the Project investigated the corresponding Plan Head may be adopted.  

 Form E 553    (Continued to........ List of forms)

 

1120 LAND

(Reason for rates are given on page ………………)

Description

Unit

Rate

Whole line Kilometres

Section I

Section II

Section III

Area

Cost

Area

Cost

Area

Cost

Area

Cost

 

 

 

Total cost ……

Hect-ares

Rs.

Hectares

Rs.

Hectares

Rs.

Hectares

Rs.

Hectares

Rs.

  Add ……………. On account of pay, allowance, etc., of Land Acquisition Staff.

Add 5 per cent for contingencies.

            Total ………………….. Rs…….

            Rate per kilometre …… Rs. ……

 

1130 STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING WORKS FORMATION

1131 EARTH WORK

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(Reasons for rate are given on page …………………….)  

Description

Unit

Rate

Whole line Kilometres

Section I

Section II

Section III

Quan-tity

Cost

Quantity

Cost

Quantity

Cost

Quantity

Cost

 

 

Total

Add for Contingencies, 5 per cent.

 

Grand Total.

 

Rs.

 

Rs.

 

Rs.

 

Rs.

 

Rs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mean rate per Kilometre.

1132. TUNNEL

(Reasons for Rates are given on page……………………….)

Name of Tunnel

Length include-ing porates

 

Heading

Enlarging

Lining

Portals

Miscellaneous items

Total

Rate per meter run

Quantity

Rate

Cost

Quantity

Rate

Cost

Quantity

Rate

Cost

Quantity

Rate

cost

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total 1132 Tunnels

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Note.-Each tunnel should be estimated for separately, each different class of work appearing as a distinct item with its own quantities, rate and cost.

1140. STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING WORKS-PERMANENT WAY

1141. RAILS AND FASTENINGS

(Reasons for rates are given on page …….. )

Description

Unit Rate

Whole Line Kms.

Section I

Km. to Km.

Section II

Km. to Km.

Quantity

Cost

Rate Per Km.

Quantity

Cost

Rate Per Km.

Quantity

Cost

Rate Per Km.

 

Rs.

 

Rs.

 

 

Rs.

 

 

Rs.

 

Main Line

……………

Add for contingencies 5 per cent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Running loops

……………

Add for contingencies 5 per cent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sidings

………………

Add for contingencies 5 per cent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

Total- 1141

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1142. SLEEPERS AND FASTENINGS

(Reasons for rates are given on page ………… )

 

Description

Unit Rate

Whole Line Kms.

Section I

Km. to Km.

Section II

Km. to Km.

Quantity

Cost

Rate Per Km.

Quantity

Cost

Rate Per Km.

Quantity

Cost

Rate Per Km.

 

Rs.

 

Rs.

 

 

Rs.

 

 

Rs.

 

Main Line

……………

Add for contingencies percent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Running loops

……………

Add for contingencies percent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sidings

………………

Add for contingencies percent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

Total- 1142

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1143. POINTS AND CROSSINGS

(Reasons for rates are, given on page…….)

Description

Unit Rate

Whole Line Kms.

Section I

Km. to Km.

Section II

Km. to Km.

Quantity

Cost

Rate Per Km.

Quantity

Cost

Rate Per Km.

Quantity

Cost

Rate Per Km.

 

Rs.

 

Rs.

 

 

Rs.

 

 

Rs.

 

Main Line

……………

Add for contingencies percent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1144. BALLAST  

(Reasons for rates are given on page….)

Description

Unit Rate

Whole Line Kms.

Section I

Km. to Km.

Section II

Km. to Km.

Quantity

Cost

Rate Per Km.

Quantity

Cost

Rate Per Km.

Quantity

Cost

Rate Per Km.

 

Rs.

 

Rs.

 

 

Rs.

 

 

Rs.

 

Main Line

……………

Add for contingencies 5 per cent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Running loops

……………

Add for contingencies5 per cent 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sidings

………………

Add for contingencies 5 percent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

Total- 1144

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1141, 1142 AND 1144. PERMANENT WAY AND BALLAST

Detailed Estimate of one Kilometre of Track (Ballast and Permanent Way)

Standard of Track

Main Line

.. Rails

-Kg. per metre

 

Sleepers

- per metre

 

Ballast

- cubic metres per metre.

Running loops              

.. Rails

Kg. per metre.

 

Sleepers          

per Km.          

 

Ballast 

cubic metre per metre. 

Sidings

.. Rails 

Kg. per metre  

 

Sleepers          

per Km.          

 

Ballast 

cubic metres per metre.

 

Details

Quantity

Unit

Rate

Amount

Remarks

Main Line Total

 

 

 

 

 

Total cost of one Kilometre of Track Rs…..

 

 

 

 

 

Running Loops Sidings

 

 

 

 

 

Total cost of one Kilometre of Track Rs

 

 

 

 

 

Sidings

 

 

 

 

 

Total cost of one Kilometre of Track Rs.

 

 

 

 

 

Note.-This estimate should be made out for one kilometre of completed track, including ballast and all charges for handling linking and maintenance during construction.

1145. FENCING  

(Reasons for rates are given on page…….) 

Description

Unit

Rate

Whole Line

…………Kms.

Section I

Section II

Quantity

Cost

Quantity

Cost

Quantity

Cost

 

 

Rs.

 

Rs.

 

Rs.

 

Rs.

Fencing

Cattle guards at stations and level crossings

Boundary Marks

Km. 

Set

 

Km.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

Add for contingencies 5 percent

Grand Total Mean rate per Km.

 

Note-The unit of one kilometre should be taken as one kilometre length of single fence not fencing sufficient for both sides of a Kilometre of Railway.

1146. ROAD CROSSINGS INCLUDING FOOT OVER/UNDER BRIDGES AT 

STATIONS AND OTHER PLACES

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(Reasons for rates are given on page……….)

Description

Unit

Rate

Whole Line

…………Kms.

Section I

Section II

Quantity

Cost

Quantity

Cost

Quantity

Cost

 

 

Rs.

 

Rs.

 

Rs.

 

Rs.

Earth work of level crossings

Gates. huts and guard rails at ….. class level crossings.

Posts and guard rails at...... class level crossings.

Metalling …. class Crossings and Public Works Department road diversions.

Bridge in road diversions

Foot over/under bridges

10

cu.m.

Each

 

 

Each

Lin.m.

Lin.m.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Total ……………………

Add for contingencies 5 per cent ………………..

Grand Total ……………………….

Mean rate per Kilometre ……………….

1147. MISCELLANEOUS

(Reasons for rates are given on page ………..)

 

Description

Unit

Rate

Whole Line

…………Kms.

Section I

Section II

Quantity

Cost

Quantity

Cost

Quantity

Cost

 

 

Rs.

 

Rs.

 

Rs.

 

Rs.

Km. posts

Gradient posts

Telegraph post number plates

Total……………….

Add for contingencies 5 per cent

Grand Total …………..

Mean rate per Km. Rs.

Each

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MAJOR BRIDGES

(Reasons for rates are given on page..............)      

Section of Estimate ……

Number of Bridge

Kilometres

….. to …km. To

km.

Whole Line

…….to ……

….Kilometres

………………… Total

……………………..

Total

Description of work

Unit

Rate

River

…… spans, M. girders,

….. open found

Waterway

2801 ft.

Waterway

2801 ft.

Quantity

Cost

Quantity

Cost

Quantity

Cost

1151. Steel Work-

Girders            …………mclear span……

tonnes per span at Rs. ……pr tonne (including their erection)

(See paragraph of….. the report)

 

Total

 

 

 

Rs.

 

Rs.

 

Rs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Description of work

Unit

Rate

River

…… spans, M. girders,

….. open found

Waterway

2801 ft.

Waterway

2801 ft.

Quantity

Cost

Quantity

Cost

Quantity

Cost

1152. Masonry-

(1) Earthwork including Cu.m. Excavation, filling. backing and Islands.

(2) Excavation in hard rock well-curbs, well sinking.

(3)Concrete. hydraulic, in wet. Founds

(4)        Brickwork and masonry in open founds. super structure and drop walls. Timbering foundations'. Including cost of timber, pumping, lighting. Temporary island for pitching of well-curbs, etc,

(5)        Supervision

Total

Cu.m.

 

 

 

10

Cu.m

Cu.m.             Cu.m.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1153. Miscellaneous

(1) Guide banks pitching river training.

(2)        Other including work not included in (i) or (ii) above

Total

 

Grand Total

 

Add for contingencies 5 per cent

Total cost of bridge-

Cost per lineal metres of waterway

Cost per Kilometre

 

Cu.m.

 

Lum-

Sum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Note.- Each major Bridges should be estimated for separately, the extra cost of providing for cart, animal foot traffic is to be shown separately.

1151. MAJOR BRIDGES - Steel Work            

Kilometrage                                                                                                      Cost

Total

1152. MAJOR BRIDGES-Masonry

Kilometrage                                                                                                      Cost

Total

1153. MAJOR BRIDGES-Miscellaneous

Kilometrage                                                                                                      Cost

Total

MINOR BRIDGES (costing less than Rs. 10,000 each)

(Reasons for rates are given on page........)

 

Description of bridge

Whole line

..Km

Km..to..

Km.

Km..to..

Km.

Km..to..

Km.

Total number of spans

Cost

Total number of spans

Cost

Total number of spans

Cost

Total number of spans

Cost

1154. Steel work

Total

1155. Masonry-

(1)        Open-top culverts.

(2)        Flat-top culverts

(3)        Arched culverts

Total.

 1156. Miscellaneous-

Total.

 

Total waterway and cost

Add for contingencies 5 per cent

Grand Total…

 

Rs.

 

Rs.

 

Rs.

 

Rs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lin. M.

Rs.

Lin. M.

Rs.

Lin. M.

Rs.

Lin. M.

Rs.

 

contd.................chapter-VA

1154. MINOR BRIDGES- Steel Work

Kilometrage

Cost

 

I.                    Minor Bridges costing more than Rs.10, 000

II.           Minor Bridges costing less than   Rs.10, 000

 

      Total

 1155. MINOR BRIDGES – Masonry 

Kilometrage

Cost

 

III.               Minor Bridges costing more than Rs.10, 000

IV.        Minor Bridges costing less than   Rs.10, 000

 

      Total

 1156 MINOR BRIDGES – Miscellaneous 

Kilometrage

Cost

 

V.                 Minor Bridges costing more than Rs.10, 000

VI.        Minor Bridges costing less than   Rs.10, 000

 

      Total

 contd........chapter-VA

  1167. STATION MACHINERY

 (reasons for rates are given on page……….)

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Section of Estimate and Name of Station

Particualar

 

Total

 

Cost

Cost

Cost

Cost

Cost

Section 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section  I  -  Kilometres      Rate per Kilometre                              Rs………………

                                                                                                         Total…………….

 

(and so on for each Section and for whole line)

 

Note:- (1) Estimates should be made out by stations, each individual structure appearing as a separate item.

 

(2) Suitable from may be adopted for detailed heads 1168 and 1171 to 1179

 

 

 1180.            GENERAL CHARGES -Establishment

1181.            Direction and General

Description

 

Number

Salary

Period in Months

Amount

 

 

Details of Charges

 

 

 

 

 

      

 1182. AUDIT AND ACCOUNTS

Description

 

Number

Salary

Period in Months

Amount

 

 

Details of Charges

 

 

 

 

 

     

 1183. CIVIL ENGINEERING

Description

 

Number

Salary

Period in Months

Amount

 

 

Details of Charges—

 

(e.g. Executive Engineer

Asstt. Engineer, Inspector of works)

 

……………………..

……………………..

 

Travelling Allowance

Provident Fund

 

 

 

 

 

     

Note.—Similar Forms may be framed for detailed heads 1184 to 1189

1190. GENERAL CHARGES--Other than Establishment

1191. PLANT CONSTRUCTION

Description

 

Quantity

Rate

Total

Per Kilometre

 

Plant for construction

……………………..

 

Plant for Important/

Major Bridges……..

……………………

……………………

Credit on completion  of

Construction.

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

Whole line……………………….Rate per kilometer Rs.

1192. INSTRUMENTS

Description

 

Quantity

Rate

Per

Amount

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

1193. OFFICE EXPENSES

Description

 

Quantity

Rate

Per

Amount

  Accommodation

Details of charges

(e.g. Executive Engineer—

Office , Furniture)

…………………..

……………………

Contingencies

Details of Charges 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1194.             TEMPORARY RESIDENTIAL QUARTERS

Description

 

Plinth area

Rate per Sq. metre

Amount

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

1195. GENERAL CHARGES ON STORES

Description

 

Quantity

Rate

Per

Amount

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Note.—Similar forms may be framed for detailed heads 1196 to 1199

554.-Abstract Cost of Project .--The detailed construction estimates should be accompanied by an Abstract cost of the project in the following form :- 

Form E. 554

.……… Railway ……. Gauge. Length ………. Kilometres 

Head of Account

Whole line

Section I and so on

Detailed Head

Sub-Head

Detailed Head

Sub-Head

Cost

Rate per Km.

Cost

Rate per Km.

Cost

Rate per Km.

Cost

Rate per Km.

1110.

1111.

1112.

1113.

1120.

1130.

1131.

1132.

Preliminary Expenses

 Survey Expenses

 Plant

Establishment

 Land

 Structural Engineering Works- Formation.

 Earth work

 Tunnels and so on as per classification of capital and other Works Expenditure.

 

 

Total Cost

Rate per kilometre

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

………………..

Chief Engineer

………………..

Accounts Officer

555.     Techno-Economic Survey Reports.—Techno-Economic Survey Reports based on Preliminary Engineering-cum-Traffic Surveys for new lines and traffic facilities may be compiled under chapters as indicated below :— 

(i)         Introduction ;

(ii)        Traffic Projection ;

(iii)       Analysis of Alternatives ;

(iv)       Characteristics of Project Area ;

(v)        Standards   of   Construction   (for new   lines, multiple tracking schemes, gauge conversions);

(vi)       Route Selection/Project Description ;

(vii)      Project Engineering (for new lines, multiple tracking schemes and gauge conversions);               

(viii)      Cost, phasing and investment schedules ;

(ix)       Financial Appraisal ; and

(x)        Recommendation.

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556.     The outlines of chapters as indicated in para 556 to 575 are to be taken as guidelines and depending on the type of project to be investigated, they can be suitably modified and adopted. 

557.     Introduction.—Guidelines contained in para 503 may be generally followed in framing the contents of this chapter.  In the section dealing with “Methodology and Investigation” for projects other than new lines the method adopted for the various aspects of investigation associated with the project may be outlined.  Any special features, pertaining to various constituent elements of the project which may be of interest to any future investigation may be mentioned. 

558.     Traffic Projections.—Even though a separate traffic survey report in a detailed form may be compiled, this chapter should furnish a synopsis to provide necessary focus to obtain a clear perspective of the scheme.  This chapter, therefore, should provide an insight into the traffic prospects and present analysis of existing capacity and possibility of optimisation of the existing facilities. 

559.     The traffic projection must present a commodity-wise analysis taking into account the growth of major industries, minerals and agricultural activities in the area and also the general trends of growth of traffic.  The projections may be made over a period of 30 years at an interval of 5 years. 

560.     Analysis of the existing Capacity.—The existing capacity must be analysed with reference to master charts in the case of doublings, multiple track schemes and gauge conversion schemes.  In the case of projects relating to passenger terminals the existing capacity must be analysed with reference to occupation charts of platform lines, washing and stabling lines etc.  In the case of schemes relating to goods and marshalling yards the capacity must be examined in terms of average detention of trains etc.  In the case of projects relating to new lines, the existing means of transport, such as roads, water-ways etc. must be discussed. 

561.     Possibility of Optimisation of Existing Facilities.—The report must present an analysis on the possibility of optimisation of the existing facilities.  In the case of doublings, multiple tracking, gauge conversion schemes the analysis must project the possibility of improving the line capacity by having improved signalling higher speeds heavier/longer trains, change of traction from steam to diesel/electric traction.

In the case of schemes for terminal facilities, the analysis should cover the possibility of reducing the lie over period of rakes, reducing the servicing time of rakes and the occupation of platform by each train.  The possibility of shifting the terminal away from a busy terminus either by extending the run of the existing trains or by combining two trains from different directions terminating at the same station, may also be analysed. 

In the case of schemes relating to goods yards, the analysis, should indicate whether the detention in the yards are reasonable and if there is a possibility of reducing them. The analysis should cover the possibility of extending point to point services reducing the workload in marshalling yards and detention in the yards enroute. 

For projects relating to new lines, the analysis should cover whether existing means of transport can meet the requirements of traffic by making some improvements and whether the construction of a new line is inescapable. 

562.     Analysis of alternatives - The Analysis must  indicate the alternative schemes, their approximate cost, the time required for their execution, the additional capacity they will create, their merits and demerits. Financial returns must be worked out for the important  alternatives and the one giving the best return may be generally adopted except when there are other overriding reasons in favour of the costlier alternative 

563.     Characteristics of Project Area - For projects relating to construction of new lines, multiple tracking a schemes and gauge conversions provisions contained in para 507 may be followed. 

564.     Standards of Construction.—For projects relating to construction of new lines, multiple tracking schemes and gauge conversions provisions contained in para 508 to 522 will apply. 

565.     Route selection/project description.—For projects relating to construction of new lines multiple tracking schemes and gauge conversions, provisions contained in para 523 will apply for route selection.  For projects like yard re-modelling, terminal facilities etc. the contents of the chapter Project Description may be presented under the following groupings :— 

            (i)         Site 

            (ii)        Environment: 

            (iii)       Facilities to be provided : 

            (iv)       Equipment and construction requirement; 

            (v)        Input requirements; 

            (vi)       Labour and Management requirements; and 

            (vii)      Problems likely to be encountered during construction. 

566.     Site.—The availability of land, its characteristics and land use patterns (agricultural, residential, industrial, grazing etc.) may be mentioned.  The suitability of the site for the project under study taking into account the future needs should be brought out. 

567.     Environment.—Climatic conditions, rainfall characteristics, existence of air pollution which may cause corrosion etc. may be brought out.  Details of communications facilities available like access roads, availability of water, human activity in the area and human settlements (townships squatter settlements etc.) may be furnished.  This aspect is of considerable importance since the location of terminal  facilities or yard facilities close to squatter settlement with attendent problem like pilferage etc., has to be borne in mind in the choice of selection of alternative sites.           

568.     Facilities to be provided.—The various facilities to be provided under the scheme may be presented grouped according to the various user departments. 

569.     Equipment and construction requirements.—Under this heading various equipment which may be provided as a part of the scheme (particularly in the case of repair facilities) may be indicated.  Further any special equipment required during construction may also be indicated.

 570.     Input requirement.—Availability of power and water arrangements for meeting the demand may be indicated.  Availability of construction materials and any special arrangements for procuring them may be furnished. 

571.     Labour and Management requirement.—The organisational structure envisaged for the execution of the project may be indicated.  The staffing pattern to operate the facilities provided after commissioning the project and the facilities included in the scheme to meet the housing and the other requirements of such staff may be furnished. 

            572.     Special problems.—The chapter should indicate the type of problems that may be encountered during the execution of the project. Problems likely to be encountered in land acquisition, movement of materials, foundation problems, and any difficulty in housing of workers and ensuring supply of utilities during construction may be brought out.

573.     Project Engineering.—For projects relating to new lines, multiples tracking schemes and gauge conversions provisions contained in para 525 may be followed.

 574.     Cost, phasing and investment schedule.—Provisions contained in para 542 and 543 may be followed.

 575.     Financial Appraisal.—This Chapter must present the financial appreciation of the various alternative schemes examined by the Project Investigator.  If phasing of the project is contemplated the investment levels of the various phases may be kept in view while presenting the analysis.  Reference may be made to chapter II of the Indian Railway Financial Code regarding financial appraisal of Railway projects. 

576.     Feasibility Reports.—Feasibility Reports may be prepared in the format prescribed for Techno-economic Survey Reports.

*********

 

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CHAPTER VI

INVESTMENT PLANNING AND WORKS BUDGET
Investment Planning and Works Programme Section

General

601. Investment decisions relating to the creation, acquisition and replacement of assets on the Railways are processed through the annual "Work, Machinery and Rolling Stock Programme". Instructions regarding the preparation of the Machinery and Rolling Stock Programme are contained in Chapter XV of the Indian Railway Code of Mechanical Department (Work shops). On the basis of the estimate of the Plan funds requirement for the ensuing year, the Railway Board lay down the financial limits (see para 609) under various plan heads (refer to Appendix I) within which the Railway Administrations are required to make out their programme for the following years duly vetted by the Financial Advisor and Chief Accounts Officer for submission to the Railway Board by a specified date. The programmes are examined by the Railway Board and discussed, where necessary, with the General Managers and the works to be undertaken as well as the outlays during the Budget year are decided upon.

602. The various stages of investment planning and preparation of the Final Works Programme are given below :

The investment planning process through the above stages is dealt with in the following paragraphs :-

Advance Planning

603. The preparation of the annual Works Programme of a Railway is not an isolated exercise for the year, but is part of a continuous planning process from the level of the Divisional Officer upwards. Investment proposals emanating from the Division would be those which are intended to effect improvement in operation or remove bottlenecks etc., within the Division itself. Major investment proposals which benefit a Zonal Railway System or the Indian Railway as whole should be co-ordinated and planned at the level of the Railway Headquarters or the Railway Board, where necessary.

604. An important requirement for effective investment planning is the realistic estimation of project costs. Full details of the scheme must be worked out and no scheme should be included in the Railway's Works Programme unless detailed plans and estimates have been prepared and are ready. Detailed Traffic and Engineering surveys should be carried out for new lines, gauge conversions doublings and for other line capacity works costing more than Rupees Five Crores each. In the case of yard remodellings, line capacity works i. e., goods shed facilities and important buildings the estimates should be based on plans approved and signed by the concerned departments who should scrutinize the plans carefully to avoid the need for making any substantial modifications in the required facility at a subsequent stage.

If major changes in the plans/schemes/specifications of works nevertheless become necessary and are likely to lead to substantial excesses over the sanctioned estimates the changes asked for by the concerned departments should not be agreed to unless reviewed and approved by the competent authority sanctioning the original estimate. In regard to proposals for new marshalling yards goods terminals, and tranship yards etc., work study teams should go into the actual working before formulating schemes for the additional facilities required.

605. It is an essential feature of the railway system as a commercial undertaking that expenditure, other than that wholly chargeable to ordinary Revenue, incurred on new assets or for improvement of existing assets should be financially justified before it is incurred. Detailed instructions regarding the financial appraisal of Railway projects are contained in Chapter II of the Indian Railway Financial Code to which reference may be made. The cases where no financial justification need be given are contained in para 202 of the Indian Railway Financial Code. Detailed financial implications (including financial return) should be worked out in all cases including works financed from Development Fund, Accident Compensation, Safety and Passenger Amenities Fund or Open Line Works Revenue (see para 626). If the prescribed return is found to be not obtainable on the anticipated level of traffic, the Railway Administration should examine whether the proposal cannot be reduced in scop, or given up in favour of some other alternative, or postponed until traffic prospects improve.

606. When a number of works have to be carried out to achieve a common objective, the financial implications or justification should be worked out for the entire scheme as a whole. In case where the wider schemes covers two railway, a joint estimate of cost should be prepared for the Railway Board's consideration. The Railway in which the major portion of the work falls should obtain figures from the contiguous Railway for submitting joint figures of cost and financial implication to the Railway Board.

Scrutiny of Schemes before preparation of Preliminary Works Programme

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607. All schemes costing Rs. 20 lakhs or above should be worked out comprehensively and sent to the Board along with full details of (i) the technical features, (ii) Cost break-up. (iii) benefit expected to accrue and (iv) financial implications. A sketch map of each proposal should also be sent. The Railway Administration must clearly bring out the purpose of each scheme and confirm that the proposal meets the objective fully and that the scope and cost of the project have been arrived at after the fullest possible investigation including assessment of the financial implications. After the schemes have been scrutinized by the Board, the Railway Administrations should be advised of the acceptance, with or without any modifications for inclusion in the Works programme.

608. Track renewal proposals costing Rs. 20 lakhs and above are initially scrutinised by the Board, keeping in view the availability of permanent way materials, progress of the works already sanctioned and other technical factors. For this purpose the Railway Administrations should send all track renewal proposals costing Rs. 20 lakhs and above together with technical data like traffic density, age, conditions of track components etc., in the form prescribed by the Board to reach the Boards office by the stipulate date. After the proposals are screened by the Board, guidelines are issued to the Railway Administrations to reframe their proposals for inclusion in the Works Programme.

Preparation of the Preliminary Works Programme

609. The Chief Engineer of the Railway will be primarily responsible for ensuring that the proposals prepared by the various departments are complete in all respects and are correctly prepared. The overall priorities within the ceilings given by the Board will also be fixed by him in consultation with the General Manager and other Heads of Departments. He will be responsible for the preparation and timely submission of the Preliminary and the Final Works Programme.

610. In or about June/July each year the Railway Board should convey to each Railway, in respect of each Plan Head, the total outlay within which the Works Programme should be framed by the Railway. A list of the Plan Heads is given in Annexure I. On receipt of this financial ceiling the Railway administrations should take stock of the schemes already formulated and those under consideration and select for inclusion in the Works programme within the financial ceiling such works as are expected to yield the maximum benefit to the Railway, preference being given to works in progress. Further necessary changes in the investment schedule may be made in order to work within the financial ceiling for the year such modifications being taken note of in framing the preliminary Works Programme and revising the financial implications, if necessary.

611. The Preliminary Works Programme for the following year should be submitted by the Railways to the Railway Board by 1st week of September or such earlier date as may be laid down by the Board. Proper financial appraisal of each work should be given in the Preliminary Works Programme together with the comments of the Financial adviser and Chief Accounts Officer.

612. The project cost should be based on firm data both as to quantity and rates at current price levels, and should any increase occur in prices during the period intervening between the initial preparation of the project estimate and its inclusion in the works Programme, the estimate should be updated taking into account any significant changes in the wages and material prices as well as increase in freights and fares. No other increase such as on account of change in scope of the project should be allowed without prior reasons being adduced for acceptance by the Railway Board. A sketch showing the proposal should accompany each proposal.

613. Each investment proposal should be accompanied by a detailed plan showing the scheduling of the project to match the traffic requirements and the financial outlay proposed for the year should be in accordance with this project schedule to enable the Railway Board to arrange for a realistic funds allocation for implementation of the programme.

614. In deciding the outlays for the various works Railway Administrations must endeavour to progress all works in progress speedily and bring them into use at the earliest possible date. A work which has been sanctioned and for which funds have been allotted whether in the original or supplementary budget of a year should be treated as a "work in progress" for the next year and provided for as such in the programme. Such works should be grouped as indicated in para 619.

615. The Railway Administrations should make a realistic assessment of the amount required for each work in progress and necessary provision should be made for it in the Works Programme. In estimating the provision for works during the budget year a generous allowance should be made for those delays in execution which though unforseen are known from experience to be so liable to arise particularly prior to inception and during the initial stages of large projects. The provision made should take into account adjustment of charges on surveys connected with a project.

616. In exhibiting the outlay for the current year against individual works in the works programme, the outlay should be as per Pink Book, and in exceptional cases where the Railways propose any substantial increase in the outlay with corresponding reductions against other works, such revised outlay may be shown separately in brackets below the outlay as furnished in the Pink Book duly explaining the reasons for doing so in footnotes at the appropriate places. As far as possible only the last sanctioned costs should be exhibited. Wherever it is visualised that the cost would involve an excess over the last sanctioned cost, effective steps should be taken well in time to have the revised estimate prepared and sanctioned by the competent authority before the Works Programme is sent to the Board. In case where the revised estimates are sanctioned subsequent to the despatch of the final Works Programme but before the end of January of the following years the same should be promptly advise to the Board to enable to the latest sanctioned cost being exhibited in the Pink Book to be circulated alongwith the Budget. In all case of revised costs sanctioned by the Board, reference to the letter of sanction should invariably be indicated.

617. Works once introduced through a Works Programme (including Track Renewal Programme) and taken up after the estimates have been sanctioned by the competent authority should continue to be included every year till they are finally completed, except in case where the works have reached the completion stage and where funds required if meagre could be found by reappropriation.

618. The Works Programme is compiled in the following format :-

Form E. 618

WORKS PROGRAMME 1975-76

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       Demand No...............................                                 Figures in thousands of rupees)

Item No. Authority Particularsof Works Cost Expenditure
to end of 3/74 

Outlay for

Balance
1974-75 1975-76
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
               

  Note :--Years have been shown in the form for the purpose of illustration.

In respect of "Works in Progress" reference to item No. of the current year’s Pink Book and also the authority under which the work was first started should be indicated. The works should be arranged as per the Plan Heads.

619. The items in the Works Programme should be grouped under the following categories while compiling the Works Programmes :--

620. The works are further made into sub-groups of (i) Works costing more than Rupees Five Lakhs each and (ii) Works costing upto Rupees Five lakhs each. Under (ii) works costing upto Rupees two lakhs each in the case of Track Renewal works and for works costing upto Rupees one lakh each in the case of other works only lumpsum provision should be shown without detailing individual works. Within each sub-group, the works are presented under each Plan Head.

621. A map showing the Railway System and indicating the new lines, doublings, major yard remodellings, important line capacity and signalling works which are in progress as well as proposed should be attached to the Works Programme. An alphabetical index of works and various managerial information regarding critical materials, expenditure position relating to passengers and railways users amenities etc. which will be prescribed by Railway Board should be included.

622. Integrated Budget.-The Annual Budget of Railways consists of assessment of earnings and expenditure forming part of Revenu Budget, and that relating to the investment decisions taken through the Works Machinery and Rolling Stock Programmes. In order to co-relate the decisions relating to all these aspects, a consolidated budget called integrated Budget including Revenue Budget, Works Programme and the Machinery and Rolling Stock Programmes should be submitted by the Railways alongwith the preliminary Works Programme. The Integrated Budget will include the projections of traffic and earnings, works working expenses, the estimated financial results for the ensuing year, and the operating ratio in the proforma specified by the Railway Board. The Railways should also furnish the details of Rolling Stock required on replacement account and addition account, duly co-relating it to the anticipated increase in traffic. In the covering note to the Intergrated Budget the Railways should bring out the effect of the budget proposals on the efficiency of operations as indicated by the operating ratio and the financial viability of the system as reveraled by the financial returns on cpaital investment. After discussion of the Preliminary Works Programme, a revised Integrated Budget should be submitted along with the Final works Programme duly taking into account the changes that might have taken place in the meanitime. The Integrated annual budget may be prepared under the personal guidance of the General Manager and with the assistance of Financial Adviser and Chief Accounts Officer.

Final Works Programme

623. After having examined the individual Railways Programme, and discussions with the General Managers, the Railway Board will decide the works which should be undertaken during the following year and which should be included in the Final Works Programme. The Railway Administration gives will then modify their Works Programmes as a result of the Board's decision and send their Final Works Programme to the Railway Board by the stipulated date.

Section II-Works Budget

624. Works Budget.--The revised and budget estimets for the construction, acquisition and replacement of assets are briefly known as Works Budget. The revised estimate gives an estimate of funds required for the current year and the budget estimate referes to the following year. For a detailed study of the Railway Budget, Chapter III of the Indian Railway Financial Code should be refered to. The budget estimate for the works are based on the Works Programme approved by the Board. The requirement of funds both for new investments and for works in progress are submitted in the form of "Demand for Grants" in the Works Machinery and Rollings Stock Programme which forms a part of the Budget papers presented to the Parliament. While compiling the Works Machinery and Rolling Stock Programme for presentation in the Parliament only works costing Rupees five lakhs and above are itemised.

Demand for Works Grants

625. The proposal of Government in respect of sums required to meet the expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of India are to be submitted in the form of Demands for Grants to the Parilament. The Demand shall be for gross expenditure, the credits or recoveries (refer to para 335 of Indian Railway Financial Code) being shown in the form of footnotes to Demands.

The Demand for Grants for the Works Budget is :

Demand No. 16 : Assets-Acquisitions, Construction and Replacements.

Financing of Works Budget

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626. Works chargeable to Demand No 16.Assets-Acquisitions Construction and Replacements are financed from railway revenue when it is charged to OLWR or financed from Capital. Depreciation Reserve Fund, Development Fund, Accident Compensation Safety and Passenger Amenities Fund. Expenditure budgetted under "capital" involves increase in the Capital-at-charge of the Railways and hence is the liability for payment of dividend to General Revenue subject to the relief/exemptions granted by the Convention Committee. "Works expenditure" of the Railway is thus financed from Revenue, Railway Funds and Capital provided by the General Revenues. The Railway Funds are Depreciation Reserve Fund, Development Fund and Accident Compensation Safety and Passenger Amenities Fund. For Details regarding the operation of the funds, reference may be made to Chapter. III of the Indian Railway Financial Code. In the event of the railways revenue surplus not being adequate to fully meet the requirements of Development Fund Expenditure, the budgetary support from the General Revenues would also include temporary loans to finance expenditure from the Development Fund. The expenditure under works Budget of the Railways is, therefore, determined by the resource allocation under various Plan Heads.

627. Credits or Recoveries. There are certain credits or recoveries which are excluded from the scope of the Demands presented for vote of Parliament, (refer to para 335 of Indian Railway Financial Code for details). Though these credits or recoveries are outside the scope of the Grants, they are booked in accounts as reduction of expenditure, e.g. credit for released materials. A list of credits or recoveries which should be excluded from the scope of the Demand should be sent in Form 335F along with the revised estimates of the current year and budget estimates of the ensuing year under each Demand.

628. Distribution of Funds by the Railway Board. The Grants as voted by the Parliament and the appropriations for charged expenditure (for details of `voted' and' charged' expenditure reference may be made to paras 302 and 303 of the Indian Railway Financial Code) as sanctioned by the President are distributed by the Railway Board among the Railway Administrations and other authorities, subordinate to them as soon as possible after the Budget is sanctioned. The sums so distributed are called "Allotments" and the orders by means of which the allotments are made are called "Budget Orders". The allotments made out of funds voted by the Parliament are shown as "Voted" and those fixed by the President are shown as "Charged".

629. The Budget Orders are accompanied by the final issues of "Demands of Grants" and "Works Machinery and Rolling Stock Programmes", containing the detailed distribution of the Budget allotment made to railway administrations for working expenses and Capital, Depreciation Fund, Development Fund, Open Line Works (Revenue) and Accident Compensation, Safety and Passenger Amenities Fund expenditure. The Budget allotment made to railway administration is intended to cover all charges including the liabilities for past years to be paid during the year or to be adjusted in the accounts for it. It shall be operative until the close of the financial year. Any unspent balance shall lapse and shall not be available for utilisation in the following year.

630. In the event of the Budget Orders of the Railway Board not being received before the commencement of the financial year, the railway administrations are empowered to incur expenditure pending the receipt of the Budget Order on works which were in progress at the end of the previous financial year. All expenditure incurred under this must be treated as a charge against the allotments eventually made for such works.

631. When the Budget Orders issued by the Railway Board show any reduction in the estimate originally submitted to them, prompt measures should be taken by the railway administrations to limit the expenditure to the amounts allotted and distributed by the Railway Board.

General Rules on Budget

632. The general rules on Railway Budget are contained in Chapter III of the Indian Railway Financial Code to which reference may be made.

633. Planning for Surveys. As surveys for the initial step of investment planning, the programme of surveys requires to be planned in advance and reviewed along with the investment decisions being taken in the annual Works Programme meeting being held in Railway Board Office. A separate statement indicating the surveys in progress and the new surveys proposed to be undertaken should be prepared and included in the Railway Works Programme being submitted to the Railway Board. The need for each survey should be clearly stated bringing out inter alia whether the same survey was proposed earlier and if so with what results.

634. The cost of surveys or preliminary investigations to examine the feasibility and prospects of new line constructions and other projects is charged to Demand No. 2 which is a Revenue Demand. All surveys costing more than Rs. 1 lakh require prior approval of Parliament. If the construction of a project is undertaken, the expenditure on the Survey is transferred to Capital or other appropriate heads by Credits to Revenue, irrespective of the year in which the expenditure was originally incurred. The charges on surveys are mostly made up of the pay and allowances of staff, cost of transport, cost of mathematical and other instruments and camp and office equipage. The allowance for depreciation on materials likely to be left over on completion of the surveys should be made on a scale justified by past experience. The Budget estimate of surveys should provide for any adjustments necessary under the rules in respect of surveys pertaining to a project the construction of which has been or is to be taken in hand. The revised estimates of surveys for a year and the budget estimates for the ensuing year based on the decisions arrived at in the Works Programme meeting should be prepared in respect of each survey in the following form and submitted in duplicate so as to reach the Railway Board not later than 1st December of the year to which the ""revised estimates" relate.

FORM NO. E-633

Demand No. 2-RAILWAYS (SURVEYS)

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.............. RAILWAY

REVISED ESTIMATES FOR (1975-76) AND BUDGET ESTIMATE FOR (1976-77)

(To be despatched so as to reach the Railway Board by the 1st December, 1975 without fail)

(Figures in thousands of rupees) 

Particulars

Total estimated or sanctioned cost

Expenditure to end of 1973-74

Expendi-ture for 1974-75

Budget Estimate 1975-76

Revised Estimate 1975-76

Budget Estimate 1976-77

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Total …….

Deduct.- Credits for write back to Capital Account of expenditure on the following surveys.

Net ………

 

 

 

 

 

 

Note.-Years have been shown in the form for purposes of illustration.

**********

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CHAPTER VII
ESTIMATES

701. Kinds of Estimates.--All proposals for--

(a)        the construction or purchase of new works or assets.

(b)        the renewals and replacements of existing works or assets chargeable to Depreciation Fund/Development Fund or Open Line Works Revenue when estimated to cost more than Rs.50,000/-  or if chargeable to Revenue when estimated to cost more than Rs.2 lakhs.

 (c)       the scrapping, dismantlement or abandonment of existing works or assets.

(d)        the repairing or reconditioning of the existing works or assets, if estimated to cost more  than Rs.1 lakh  and that of a single housing unit, if estimated to cost more than Rs. 20,000/-.

(e)             temporary and experimental works

(f)             renewals and replacements on worked lines, and

(g)             renewals of ballast.

 Should, subject to the provisions of paragraph 1103 regarding urgent works, be scrutinized by the authority competent to sanction them before any expenditure or liability is incurred thereon. For the purpose of this scrutiny, all such proposals should be presented in the form of one or other of the following estimates, according to the circumstances mentioned in paragraphs 702 to 713

Note.1. For "New Minor Works" costing Rs.50,000/- and less, for renewals and replacement works chargeable to Revenue costing Rs.2 lakhs and less and for "Reconditioning Works" costing Rs.1 lakhs and less detailed estimates need not be prepared for formal sanction. Rough estimates should, nevertheless, be prepared and kept on record by the Executive Engineer.

(Authority Railway Board's file No. 2001/CE. I /CT/17(Pt) dated 24.03.2003) 

2. In those cases of renewals of permanent way, which are essentially of the nature of repairs and maintenance and in respect of which there is no question of an improvement or a change in the type of materials, and it is impracticable to prepare estimates in advance, separate estimates need not be prepared, but the total cost of the renewals, which must be comparatively small (less the cost of released materials), may be charged to Depreciation Fund through the permanent-way returns, the estimate for track renewals for the division or system being operated upon for this purpose, and the possible credits to Capital on account of the difference between the original cost and the actual cost being neglected in such cases

702. The Abstract Estimate.An abstract estimate is prepared in order to enable the authority competent to give administrative approval to the expenditure of the nature and the magnitude contemplated, to form a reasonably accurate idea of the probable expenditure and such other data sufficient to enable that authority to gauge adequately the financial prospects of the proposal. Abstract estimates avoid the expense and delay of preparing estimates for works in detail at a stage when the necessity or the general desirability of the works proposed has not been decided upon by competent authority. An abstract estimate should contain a brief report and justification for the work, specifications, and should mention whether funds are required in the current year and to what extent. It should also show the cost subdivided under main heads and sub-heads or specific items, the purpose being to present a correct idea of the work and to indicate the nature of the expenditure involved. The allocation of each item as between Capital Development Fund, Open Line Works-Revenue, Depreciation Reserve Fund and Revenue should be indicated.

Note.-(1) Administrative approval to a work or scheme should be accorded by the authority competent to do so ( vide paragraph 748 ), after a thorough examination as to its necessity, utility and financial prospects. See also rules in Chapter II of Indian Railway Financial Code.

(2) In regard to works which are specified in the sanctioned budget of a year (i.e. in the "Works Machinery and Rolling-stock Programmes" accompanying the Budget Orders paragraph 629), the total estimated cost shown against each work should be regarded as the Abstract Estimate. The inclusion of a work in the sanctioned budget should be deemed to carry with it the administrative approval of the Railway Board except that in the case of structural works, other than track renewal works, costing more than Rupees one crore each, the administrative approval of the Railway Board should be obtained by the submission of separate Abstract Estimates not withstanding their specific inclusion in the sanctioned budget; however, estimates costing over Rs. 50 lakhs and upto Rs. 1 crore will be certified and sanctioned personally by the FA & CAO and GM respectively.

Form E-702

............... RAILWAY

ABSTRACT    ESTIMATE

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Department ……………… Division    ………………Station………………

Estimate No. ………………

Framed by ……………… Division……………………………………….

Description of work ………………

Plan No. …………………………..

Reference…………………………. 

Cost

Capital

D.F.

D.R.F.

OLWR

Ordy. Rev.

Deposit

Misc. advance

Total

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Existing sanctioned estimate (if any) Present estimate

Total:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                              To be purchased                       Rs………………

Cost of stores………………

                                                              To stock                                   Rs………………

Funds

Report and Justification-

Specification-

Enclosed -*Details of cost with allocation (form E-704). Sub-Estimates.

Has Accounts Officer agreed to the proposed allocation?

 

Station ………………                                                             Signature………………

Date …………………                                                            Designation………………

 

         *Required in case of any existing sanctioned estimate.

 

703.     Detailed Estimates- On receipt of administrative approval to a project or scheme other than for which construction estimate in Form E 553 is prepared conveyed through the sanction to the abstract estimate relating thereto detailed estimates for various works should be prepared and submitted for technical sanction of the competent authority. It should be prepared in sufficient detail to enable the competent authority to mike sure that the abstract estimate sanctioned by a higher authority is not likely to be exceeded. No work included in an abstract estimate should be commenced till a detailed estimate for the same is prepared and sanctioned and adequate funds are allotted by the competent authority. The detailed estimate of an open line work will comprise (i) statement is showing details of estimated cost and (ii) an outer sheet giving the abstract of cost of work, the report, the financial 'justification and the allocation.

 

Note—(1) Technical Sanction -- The sanction of the competent authority to the detailed estimate of a work is called the "technical sanction". The authority according technical sanction should satisfied itself that (i) that the details of the scheme as worked out are satisfactory, (ii) the method proposed for the execution off the work are adequate; and (iii) the cost has been estimated from reliable data and likely to be reasonably accurate.

 

            (2)        In the case of works within his power of sanction, the General Manager may, in lieu of the procedure of preparing Abstract Estimates for administrative approval, prescribe that both the administrative approval and the technical sanction should be accorded on the detailed estimates.

 

704.     The statement showing details of Estimated Cost of Works may be in the following form:-

Form No. E-704

....................... RAILWAY

ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

STATEMENT SHOWING DETAILS OF ESTIMATED COST

Name of work ………………

 

Department ……………… Division ……………… Station ………………

 

S. No.

Description

Quantity

Rate

Unit

Cost

Total

Cash Rs.

Stores

Purchase

Stock

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Allocation

 

Capital

DF

D.R.F.

OLWR

Ordinary Revenue

Deposit

Misc. Advance

Total

Remarks

10

11

12

12

14

15

16

17

18

 

Office/Station ………………                                                                                                                         Signature………………

 Date ……………… ………                                                                                                                        Designation.....................

 

705.     Details of Cost of Permanent-Way Material-In the case of estimates for permanent-way renewal, on open lines, the details of estimated cost (Form E. 704) may with advantage be supported by statement showing details and cost of material required for one kilometre of permanent-way. These statements may be in the following form:- 

                                                                                                                      Form No. E-705 

Detail and Cost of One Kilometre of Permanent-way Material required for Renewal from km ……………… to km……………… 

Item No.

Description

Quantity

Rate

No.

Weight

At

Per

1.

 

2.

 

3.

 

4.

 

5.

    6.

Rails …… Kg./m ……metres in length

 

Fish plates………………………

 

Fish-bolts and nuts ……………..Kg.

 

Bearing-plates………at …… per rail

 

Spikes ……. at ………per inter sleeper and ………………… per joint sleeper.

  Sleepers …….. at ………. per rail length ……. and so on ……………….

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 706.     The Outer Sheet of open line estimates giving the abstract of cost of work. report justification and the allocation may be in the following form:-- 

Form E. 706

…............ RAILWAY

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ABSTRACT OF COST OF WORK

(Outer Sheet)

Department …………………………………………                                                               Office ………………

Estimate No. ………………   of                                                                                               20…………………….

Framed by…………………    Designation…………………………………………...................................................

Region....................................  Division…………….....................    Station or Kilometrage……...................………………………….

Name of work ……………………………………………………………………….

Plan No……………….............................................                          Reference……………

 

Estimated Cost

Sub-heads of work

Work Material

Stores in stock

Stores to be purchased.

Total

Original total in case of revised estimate

Allocation

Capital

DF

DRF

OLWR

Ordinary Revenue

Deposit

Misc. advance

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

          Funds ………… to be provided from budget for …………… item No. …………......................

direct or by reappropriation.

         Report and Justification.

         Specification ………………

                                                                                                                          Signature………………                                 

Drawings and  Annexures.                                                                                  Designation……………            ________________________________________________________________________________________________                        

 

No. ………………. Dated …………………..

Incident and allocation verified (subject to the check note attached). This requires the sanction of the …………………….

            Sanction registered as                                                                                          No………. dated …………….

            F.A.&C.A.O.                                                                                                                 G.M/C.E./D.S.

Allocation Statement

 Main and sub-heads

Cash

Rs.

Stores

Rs.

Total

Rs.

Capital

Depreciation reserve fund

OLWR

DF

Ordinary Revenue

Deposit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

707. A supplementary estimate should be prepared for any item of work, which ought to have been included in the first instance in an estimate already sanctioned but has not been so included, or which it is found later, should be considered as being a part or a phase of an estimate already prepared and sanctioned, if it cannot be met out of contingencies (see paragraph 727). Such a supplementary estimate should be prepared in the same form and the same degree of detail as the main estimate and for all purposes be treated as a part of the main estimate.

708. Revised Estimate.  -As soon as it becomes apparent that the expenditure on a work or Project is likely to exceed the amount provided therefor in the detailed estimate or construction estimate a revised estimate should (subject to provision of paragraph 1136) be prepared and submitted for the sanction of the competent authority. It should, unless otherwise ordered by the sanctioning authority, be prepared in the same form and the same degree of detail as the original estimate, and should be accompanied by a comparative statement showing the excess or saving under each sub-head of account against the latest sanction. In cases where a supplementary estimate or a previous revised estimate has been sanctioned by the Railway Board, it should be made clear how the original sanction has been modified by such further sanctions.

709. The Project Abstract Estimate. The abstract estimate of a Construction project should be submitted for the approval of the Railway Board on Form E. 554 "Abstract cost of Railway" accompanied by (i) an abstract estimate of junction arrangements, (ii) a narrative report explaining the salient features and major items of expenditure (iii) detailed estimates on Form E. 553 prescribed for a construction estimate under the following heads :

Capital1120-Land

Structural Engineering Works

1132--Tunnels, 1151 & 1152-Major Bridges, 1153 & 1154Minor Bridges, 1140 Ballast and Permanent-Way (Detailed estimate for one Kilometre).

1180 & 1190-General Charges - Establishment and General charges - Other than Establishment.

2000 --- Rolling Stock

Note.:- Head shown above are for plan Head `New Lines' as an example.

These detailed estimates should be prepared from an engineering survey report.

Note. The abstract estimate of an unremunerative project chargeable to Development fund will be prepared in the same detail as the abstract estimate for a construction project chargeable to Capital.

710. The Construction Estimate. When it is decided to undertake the execution of a new line gauge conversion or doubling of lines, a final location survey should be made; and based on the information collected in that survey detailed estimates of all the works included in the project as a whole should be prepared (cf. Paragraph 540). These detailed estimates are collectively called the "Construction Estimate" of the project. It should be prepared after a careful examination of the various details of construction involved in the project. It should be in such detail as to render it possible to dispense with working estimates or any other further estimating after the construction estimate has been sanctioned (except when supplementary or revised estimates are necessary). It should provide for the buildings and equipment of the railway up to a standard that will be sufficient for working such traffic as may be expected during the first year or two after opening of the line. It is the basis on which technical sanction to the various works included in the construction of a project is accorded.

In special cases where works are required to be commenced before the earliest date by which detailed estimates for the project as a whole could be prepared and sanctioned, part estimates for sub- works may be prepared. To enable the commencement of work on such works forming a part of the project, part estimates for the following sub-works may be sanctioned progressively by the authority competent to sanction the detailed estimate for the whole project :

Before forwarding part estimates duly concurred by FA & CAO and approved by General Manager for sanction to the Rly. Board, it should be certified that no works included in the part estimates are likely to become redundant when estimate for the whole project is prepared.

711. The Construction Estimate of project should be prepared in Form E. 553 prescribed for the purpose. It should be divided into convenient sections in accordance with the following principles.

712. Estimate of Junction Arrangements. Except where the new line is of a different gauge and has entirely its own arrangements, the estimate for the junction arrangements should be prepared in consultation with the open line administration of the connecting system, and a separate abstract estimate of the cost of the additions and alterations necessary for effecting the junction should be appended to the construction estimate.

713. Completion Estimate. A completion Estimate is prepared in supersession of a construction estimate as provided in paragraph 1701. It should show in a tabular form (E. 713) the following particulars in respect of all the works included in the construction estimate :

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An abstract of the completion estimate showing the above particulars against the various heads of capital classification should be submitted for information or sanction, vide paragraph 1703 to the Railway Board together with brief explanations for excesses of not less than Rs. 10,000 or 10 per cent over the provision under sub-heads of account and for savings of 20 per cent or one lakh, whichever is less, occurring under any main head of account. Provision for further outlay should be made in completion estimate only for those works which are in progress or completed on the date of closing of the construction estimate. All works not started on that date should be dealt with separately as open line works both as regards estimate and expenditure. In forwarding, therefore, estimates for sanction for works in connection with new lines opened, it should be clearly indicated whether the cost of the work is chargeable to Capital Construction or Open Line Capital.

Note. The completion estimate of an unremunerative construction project chargeable to Development fund will be prepared in the same detail as the original construction estimate using the various heads of capital classification for the purpose.

Estimates for Railway Project

714. Scope. - A Construction Estimate (Form E. 553) should be prepared in such detail as to reduce to a minimum the probability of omission of any item of expense which is capable of being foreseen. It should be remembered particularly that the provision for contingencies allowed in the estimate is not intended to meet items of expense which can before seen and which are reasonably likely to occur. With good estimating it should seldom be necessary to encroach, to any appreciable extent, on the provision for contingencies.

715. Detailed Estimates for works included in a project need not be submitted to the Railway Board but they must nevertheless be prepared carefully and be readily available when required, so that further estimating when construction is sanctioned will be unnecessary. In the detailed estimates, the estimated cost of a work should be shown by items, when such cost is over Rs.1 lakh and when, for no other work of the same type, details of the cost have been shown; further, when there are a number of works of the same type of the aggregate cost of which exceeds Rs.1 lakh the details of cost of one such work should be shown. Individual works included in an Abstract estimate should not be commenced (even though the commencement of the construction might have been authorised, vide paragraph 718) until detailed or working estimates therefor have been sanctioned, by the competent authority. The progressive totals of the detailed or working estimates thus sanctioned should be controlled against the provision in the Abstract estimate by means of a register kept in the form given below :

(Authority: Railway Board letter No.2001/CE-I/CT/37  dated 30-01-2001)

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Form No. E-715

Register of Detailed or Working Estimates sanctioned against the Abstract Estimate of the

....................................Project sanctioned vide.........................

Serial No.of detailed estimate Particulars of work and of sanction Heads of Account as per Capital classification
1.  Provision of Abstract        
2. Estimate
3. and so on  

  Note.—Projects for which detailed project estimate (based on the Final Location Survey) i.e., Construction estimate prescribed in Form E. 553 has been sanctioned by the Railway Board, no detailed or working estimates need be prepared and sanctioned by the competent authority in the Railway Administration before commencement of construction.

716. Rolling-Stock Estimate.--When it is necessary in connection with a new project to provide rolling-stock, the estimate for such rolling-stock should be kept entirely distinct from the estimate for the remainder of the project except in the case of lines of independent gauge where the estimates for, rolling-stock should be included in the Construction estimate, Estimates for rolling-stock should be prepared in adequate detail by the open line officer ordinarily responsible for the preparation of such estimate where the projected line is to form part of an existing system.

717. Indirect Charges.—The practice of adjustment of Foreign Service Contribution between Open Line and Construction Organisation of Indian Railways shall stand discontinued with effect from 1-4-92. Accordingly, accounts of all construction works should make a specific mention by way of a suitable note that the cost of Leave Salary & Pension contribution etc. is not included in the construction Cost.

718. Commencement of Construction.--The Construction of a new railway or extension of branch of a railway should not be commenced without the specific sanction of the Railway Board. As a rule, the Railway Board approve of the project for the construction of a Railway on consideration of a Traffic Survey Report and the Abstract Estimate of the cost of the proposed line. Such approval is not, however, a permission to commence construction. After approval to Abstract, Estimate Form E. 554 has been given, the Railway Administration should undertake the Final Location Survey, proceed with such preliminary arrangements as the land acquisition and the ordering of stores and plant, to the extent of funds allotted, and at the same time undertake the preparation of a detailed project estimate i.e. a construction estimate.

Normally, sanction to the construction of a railway will not be accorded until a further abstract of the detailed project estimate based on the final location survey has been approved of by the Railway Board, In special cases, however, where construction appears to be easy and present no engineering problems of great difficulty, the Railway Board may sanction the commencement of construction on the first abstract estimate, but under no circumstances whatsoever may construction be commenced without the specific sanction of the Railway Board.

719. When application is made for sanction to the commencement of Construction a certificate should invariably be given that the Construction Estimate has been scrutinized by an engineer of experience within three years of the date of application and any change in the amount of the estimate, which may have been found necessary owing to change of rates or other conditions since the estimate was originally prepared, should be reported to the Railway Board with an explanation of the causes necessitating the change.

Estimate of Open Line Works

720. Detailed Estimates in support of Abstract Estimates.--On open lines of railways, no works pertaining to any of the categories mentioned in paragraph, 701 should, as a rule, be started before the sanction of detailed estimates by competent authorities. In the case of open line projects, the abstract estimates (Form E. 702) of which have been sanctioned by the Railway Board or a higher authority, works should not be started until :-

(i)   an estimate for the whole work has been prepared in sufficient detail to enable the competent authority to make sure that the total of the sanctioned abstract estimate is not likely to be appreciably exceeded, and  

(ii)  a detailed estimate has been prepared for each sub-work ( i.e., distinct unit of work which is   sufficiently large or important to be kept separate for purpose of accounts ) which it is proposed to commence.

So long as these two conditions are satisfied, it is not necessary that detailed estimates for all sub-works that go to comprise any one item of the sanctioned abstract estimate should be ready before any particular sub-work is started. It is left to the discretion of General Managers to progressively prepare and sanction detailed estimates for such sub-works as are to be carried out against the sanctioned abstract estimate provided they are satisfied that the sum of such detailed estimates as are sanctioned by them will not cause an excess over the total amount of the sanctioned abstract estimate beyond the limits laid down in paragraph 748

Note.-The detailed estimates for the annual programme of permanent way renewals should, as far as practicable, (i ) be prepared for convenient lengths of permanent-way such as Permanent-Way Inspectors sections or Kilometrages of track and (ii) include such works only as can be completed within the financial year in which they are sanctioned so that the accounts of the works are not kept open long after the close of the financial year.

721. The papers to be submitted with the project for a work will consist of a list of references, a report, plans, a specification, and a detailed statement of quantities and rates with an abstract showing the total estimated cost of each item. The list of references, report and specification will be given on Form E. 706. The detailed statement of quantities and the abstract will be prepared in Form E. 704. These documents together form what is called, "the estimate" (Forms E. 704 to 706) in the sense of this Code. Sufficiently detailed plans to illustrate the work covered by an estimate should be submitted with it and a reference should be made on the front page of the estimate to the numbers and titles of the accompanying plans. The allocation of the estimated expenditure should be shown in the detailed statement and in the abstract. In the case of a project consisting of several works, the report may be a single document for all the works, and likewise the specification; but details of quantities and rates should be prepared for each work, the total cost of each work being brought out in a general abstract.

722. Report and Justification-The report on the estimate (Form E. 706) should give a brief abstract of the correspondence that has passed with reference to the project, and a brief but clear description of the work to be carried out. It should state in clear terms the object to be gained by the execution of the work estimated for, the financial justification of the proposed expenditure in accordance with the rule (see the Indian Railway Financial Code), the reasons for the adoption of the estimated project or design in preference to others, and any peculiarities which require elucidation. It should indicate the nature and extent of recurring expenditure, if any, consequent on the execution of the work. The time within which the work may be expected to be completed should also be mentioned. When the project is of an important nature, involving scientific points or other considerations of special character, the report should contain a complete account of the basis on which every part of it has been framed, the various considerations that have guided the designer on question of engineering details, economy of construction, utility or the practical working of the project when carried out, and the Method in which it is proposed to execute any portion of the work involving unusual difficulties of construction. Any local considerations which may affect the project and particularly any circumstances affecting the rates, should also be fully entered into.

723. In the reports of estimates for replacement and renewal works, it should be clearly stated whether any improvement is invloved in the proposed works and if so, the extent of such improvement should be briefly indicated so as to enable the preparation of the Block Account (c. f. to Chapter IV of Indian Railway Financial Code).

724. Specification-The report will be followed by a specification, showing fully and clearly, but as briefly as possible the details of the work, how each portion will be done, and what materials will be used. In the case of items of works proposed to be executed in accordance with the standard specification (see paragraph 730) of the railway, it is enough if reference is made to such specifications. In all other cases detailed specifications should be furnished. A general specification describing clearly the nature of construction of the various parts of the work, and of the work as a whole, will usually be necessary in addition to the detailed specifications, for each portion of the work. Such full details as are obtainable regarding land required for the project, for which compensation has to be paid, should be given.

725. The Statement of Detailed Quantities following the specification should include the measurements of land approximate or detailed, as the case may be, for which compensation will have to be paid, the area of each description of land, being separately shown.

726. Rates-The rates of the various descriptions of work are intended to cover all charges usual to, or necessary for, the execution of the work, and should generally agree with the schedule of rates (paragraph 729) but where from any cause these are not considered sufficient, or are in excess a detailed statement should be given in the report showing the manner in which the rates provided in the estimate are arrived at. The same rule will hold good with regard to any rate differing from those formerly in force in the division, when no standard schedule exists, or when any work or a description not previously executed in the division is estimated for.

727. Provision for Contingencies-Provision for unforeseen contingencies should be made in all estimates at 3 per cent of the total estimated cost. All incidental expenditure which can be foreseen such as works establishment, sheds for workmen and stores should be separately estimated and provided for in the estimates. The provision for contingencies should not be diverted to any new work or repair which is not provided for in the estimate, and of which the cost exceeds Rs. 1000/- without the sanction of the authority who sanctioned the estimate.

728. The abstract of estimate should show the quantity and the cost in rupees of each kind of work, the only exception to this rule being the case of miscellaneous petty works which may be entered in the abstract without quantities, the estimated cost alone being given.

729. Schedule of Rates-To facilitate the preparation of estimates, a schedule of rates of each kind of work commonly executed should be maintained in each open line division, and it will be the duty of the Chief Engineer when inspecting divisional offices, to see that correct schedules of the rates at which work is actually being carried out, are invariable recorded in a complete and satisfactory manner. The regulations for the due record of rates in a clear and systematic manner and for their periodical revision to bring them on line with the rates prevailing in the market and those paid by other government departments will be laid down by the General Manager.

730. Standard Specifications-Standard specification of each kind of artificer's work, commonly executed, should be kept up for each railway under the orders of the General Manager, and should be referred to by number under the several items in the schedule of rates.

731. Covering Letter for Estimates-All classes of estimates (and completion reports) beyond the powers of sanction of General Manager (paragraph 748) should be submitted to the railway Board with an explanatory covering letter containing information on the amount of existing sanctioned estimates (if any) with allocation, outlay incurred to end of previous financial year, funds provided in the current years's budget and all other relevant points.

Estimates of Deposit Works

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732. A railway Administration is occasionally required to execute works for and at the cost of other Government departments, local bodies, private persons & c. Such works are referred to in this Code as" Deposit Works" (see also paragraph 1843 for a definition of this term). To meet the cost of plans and estimates of such works as also those to be carried out for other Departments out of railway funds, which are subsequently not carried out, charges at the following sliding scale shall be levied on the total of the estimate inclusive of departmental charges :-

 

For works costing over Rs. 1,00,000.

2%

For works costing over Rs. 60,000 but not more than 1,00,000

21/2%

For works costing over Rs. 30,000 but not more than 60,000

3%

For works costing over Rs. 20,000 but not more than 30,000

31/2%

For works costing over Rs. 10,000 but not more than 20,000

4%

For works costing over Rs. 1,000 but not more than 10,000

41/2%

For works costing over Rs. 1,000 and below 5% subject to a minimum of Rs. 25

 

The acceptance of the government departments or the payment in cash by the local bodies or private individuals concerned should be obtained to the above percentage charges before the work of preparation of plans and estimates is taken in hand. In cases where the proposed works are subsequently carried out, these percentage charges should be adjusted against departmental charges.

The levy of the above percentage charges may, at the discretion of the General Manager, be waived in particular cases subject to the conditions laid down in paragraph 1138.

Note.-The scale of charges prescribed in this rule does not apply to assisted sidings, recovery of preliminary expenses in respect of which has been separately provided for under paragraph 1825.

732- A:.- Notwithstanding the stipulations for advance payment of charges at sliding scale mentioned above, the parties shall be asked to deposit an amount of Rs.2000/- only, for deposit works of value not exceeding Rs.5 lakhs, while making a request.  Subsequently, this amount shall be adjusted against the total cost of the deposit work, as per approved plans and estimates, before physical execution of the work at site.

(Authority: Railway Board's letter No. 2000/CE.I/PL/14  dated 21.11.2000)

733. In preparing estimates of works for other departments, local bodies, private individuals, & c., particular care should be taken to see that.

·         (i)   railway freight and carriage charges of materials proposed to be used in the works are provided for at rates applicable to the public and not at the confessional rates applicable to railway material; (Works of Branch Line Companies are not governed by this rule, but by the relevant contracts).

·         (ii)  departmental charges at the prescribed rates (paragraph 1137) are provided for.

734. All estimates of deposit works should be got accepted by the parties ordering the works before submission to the competent railway authority for sanction. In the case of works, which under the rules (see paragraph 1851) are required to be maintained after completion by the Railway department at the cost of the department, local body, private firms or individuals ordering the works, the acceptance of the party concerned should also be obtained for the recurring expenditure that is likely to be incurred on repairs, maintenance, etc.

735. No work asked for by another government department should be commenced till a detailed estimate for the same has been accepted by the department concerned and sanctioned by the competent railway authority. No work asked for by local bodies, private individuals, & c., should be commenced till a detailed estimate for the same has been sanctioned by the competent railway authority and the estimated cost thereof deposited with the railway. The amounts so deposited should be credited to the head "Deposits-Miscellaneous."

General Rules Applicable to all Estimates

736. Design and Execution-The designs of all new works and alterations to existing works should, as a rule, conform to the "Schedules of Dimensions" prescribed by the Railway Board for the various gauges of railways, and unless prior sanction has been obtained from the Railway Board through the Additional Commissioner of Railway Safety, no work which will infringe the "Schedules" should be executed. 

As far as practicable, Indian Railway Standard (I. R. S.) drawing should be followed in designing and I.R.S. Codes of Practice in carrying out works.

737. All estimates for the construction of or addition or alterations to staff quarters of other rent-returning buildings should be accompanied by the following information which should be given in a separate paragraph in the report to the estimate.

These quarters are intended for staff drawing pay between Rs. .....................and Rs........................The minimum and maximum rent leviable from the staff on the basis of assessed rent at 6% of the total cost subject to 71/2% / 10% of their emoluments will be between Rs. ......................and Rs...........................The anticipated return on the total cost of the proposed quarters is, therefore, expected to be between.....................per cent and......................per cent.

738. Works Executed on Contract-Estimates for works which are intended to be executed not departmentally but by contractors should be prepared at the minimum rates shown in the Schedule of Rates (cf. paragraph 729) and any reduction (or addition) to be made on account of the tender rate of contractors should be made at the foot of the abstract estimate.

739. Units of Measurements-The following measures are prescribed for general use :-

Length-The Standard Metre. As a general rule, the metre will be divided decimally. For long distances the Standard Kilometre (1 Km-1000 mts.)

Area-The `square metre' divided as a general rule decimally, 100 square metres being termed one `Acre'. For land, the standard Hectares (1 hectare=100 acres) and decimals; or for small areas, square metres.

Capacity or solidity-The `cubic metre' and `litre' divided as a general rule, decimaly.

740. Units of Rate.—The following units of rate are prescribed :—

Particulars of work

Unit of rate

Particulars of work

Unit of rate

Earth work

Brick work

Concrete

Pise work

Rubble masonry

Ashlar masonry

Pitching

 

Per 100 cubic metre

 

 

Per cubic metre

 

 

 

 

Wood work

Painting

Plastering

Flooring

Roofing

Turfing

 

Per cubic metre

 

 

Per sq. metres

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Doors and

Windows

Land

 

Per Sq. metre

 

Per hectare

 

Note.— In the case of road metalling where the depth upto which the old road is to be broken up and new stone metalling and rolling is to be completed is specified 100 sq. m. may be adopted as the unit of rate

741. Drawings.—Every drawing submitted with an estimate should have a clear title, which should be shown on the back on two opposite corners, so as to shown outside whichever way the paper be rolled up. The signature of every officer, through whose hands the design passes, should be affixed. All drawings and plans should be registered in the offices of origin and should be referred to not only by their titles but also by their registration numbers. For the purpose of registering drawings and plans a manuscript register (form E. 741) should be kept in each drawing office, Indian Railway Standard (I. R. S.) drawing should be referred to by their standard numbers.

Verification of Estimate

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742. One phase of the control of expenditure on railway is a regular check by the Accounts Officer of all estimates before they are sanctioned by the competent authority. The object of this preliminary check of estimates is to avoid irregular sanction to expenditure and the main points which require consideration are :

The checks relating to these points should be exercised with reference to the rules in this Code and in other Indian Railway Codes bearing on this matter.

743. Propriety of Expenditure. It is the duty of the Accounts Officer, in his capacity as Financial Adviser, to examine zealously all proposals for expenditure with a view to see

744. Incidence and Classification of Charges. These should be verified in an estimate in accordance with the rules of incidence and the classification of expenditure prescribed in the Indian Railway Financial Code. In his verification certificate, the Accounts Officer should clearly state that incidence and allocation have been so verified.

745. The submission of an estimate to the sanctioning authority should not be delayed when there arises any doubt as to the correct allocation of estimated cost and the question at issue will take time to settle. In such cases, the approximate allocation between Capital or Development Fund, Open Line Works-Revenue, Depreciation Reserve Fund and Revenue may be certified by the Accounts Officer, as far as it is possible for him to do so, and the sanctioning authority may sanction the estimate, if otherwise in order, leaving over the question of allocation for subsequent consideration.

If the estimate of the work is altered as a result of verification of the estimate by the Accounts officer, the previous sanction should be revised.

746. The existence of budget provision for a proposed work should be verified from the sanctioned budget allotments for the year.

747. Errors and ommissions noted in the course of the accounts Verification of estimates should be got corrected by the executive authority responsible for the preparation of (or sanction to) the estimate. The Accounts Officer may, in case where this becomes necessary, append to his verification certificate, a check note specifying such items of errors or omissions as have been pointed out by him, but have not been accepted by the executive authority and any other matter of importance.

Competency of Sanction

748. The previous sanction of an authority higher than the General Managers of Indian Railways is necessary :

·         (i)   To expenditure on new lines or rolling stock or surveys not provided in the sanctioned budget for the year or carried forward from the sanctioned budget of the previous year;

·         (ii)   To expenditure on other works not provided in the sanctioned budget or carried forward from the sanctioned budget of any previous year except :

Provided that the total lump-sum provision made in the budget for such works is not exceeded;

·         (b) (i)     On line capacity works costing above Rupees one lakh but not more than Rupees ten lakhs each;

·              (ii)    On track renewal works costing above Rupees two lakhs but not more than Rupees five lakhs each;

·              (iii)   On other than line capacity and track renewal- works costing above Rupees one lakh but not more than Rupees five lakhs each;

Subject to ceiling of Rupees one crore in all in a financial year provided that the sanctioned budget (other than lumpsum) for works in these categories is not exceeded.

Note.-(1) The works thrown forward from previous years may be taken up only if the funds required for them can be found by reappropriation within the sanctioned allotment.

        (2) The savings in the lumpsum provision made in the sanctioned budget shall not be utilized for the category of works in (b) above without the prior approval of the Railway Board.

        (3) The General Manager may sanction expenditure on new works out of turn in respect of users' amenities including goods shed and booking offices not exceeding Rupees one lakh in each case provided the funds required for such works as provided in the sanctioned budget for works in these categories is not exceeded; and expenditure upto Rupees fifty thousand in each case, in respect of existing railway schools, institutes, hospitals and dispensaries provided the lumpsum provision in the sanctioned budget is not exceeded.

(iii) To expenditure on works provided in the sanctioned budget for the year or carried forward from the sanctioned budget of any previous year as follows :

(a) Works sanctioned under the lumpsum provision. To an excess over the total lumpsum provision in the sanctioned budget for such works;

(b) Works outside the lumpsum provision. - Rolling Stock, Track renewals and other works-----

 to an excess over the estimated cost as entered in the sanctioned budget or sanctioned separately, as follows :----       

·   (i) of more than 25% over the original estimated cost;

·   (ii) of more than 15% over the first revised cost;

·   (iii) of more than 10% over the second and further revised estimated co

Provided further that all codal provisions regarding sanctions for material modification are strictly followed .

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(c) Surveys. - To an excess over 10% on original estimate sanctioned by higher authority (General Manager can sanction survey estimates costing up to Rupees one lakh each provided the surveys are included in the sanctioned budget).

Note.-(1) The works thrown forward from previous years may be taken up only if the funds required for them can be found by reappropriation within the sanctioned allotment.

(2) The amount first given in the Budget or sanctioned separately by higher authority shall be the original estimated cost and the revised amount given in subsequent Budgets or sanctioned separately by higher authority, the second, third etc., revised estimated cost.

(3) The powers of sanction to excess over estimated costs allowed in item (b) above shall not make the cost of such works exceed Rupees one crore in any case.

(4) The powers for sanctioning the excess over the estimated costs of works outside the lumpsum provision as in item (b) above shall not be re-delegated to lower authorities in respect of works, the original estimated cost of which is over Rupees fifty lakhs.

(iv) To the sale of----

       (a) a portion of a Railway line;

       (b) in item of the authorised Rolling Stock; or

       (c) any other Railway asset costing over Rupees three lakhs.

749. Subject to the provisions of the rules in paragraph 748 above, the General Managers of Indian Railways have full powers to delegate their powers or any portion of them, to authorities subordinate to them, with power to redelegate to lower authorities. A schedule of the powers delegated from time to time, to the various departmental officers on each railway should be maintained by each Railway administration and copies thereof should be furnished to the Accounts Officer, to enable him to determine in each case the authority competent to sanction expenditure.

750. Grouping of Works.- When two or more works are so connected, either by their situation or by the purpose or purposes which they are designed to serve, that construction of one necessarily involve that of the other or others, the works should be considered as one scheme and the aggregate estimated cost of the work so connected determine the authority competent to sanction expenditure on the scheme.When the works constituting a connected scheme are situated in more than one executive division separate detailed estimates should be prepared of the cost of the work in each division in order that the Executive Engineer entrusted with the actual construction may be in a position to watch expenditure against a sanctioned estimate of the cost of the work in his charge.

751. Subsidiary Points to be checked. -In the check of estimates the following subsidiary points also require attention. It should be seen--

(i)         That the particulars of work to be done are furnished in sufficient detail and that a proper distribution is made of the estimated outlay between cash and stores;

(ii)        that the allocation of each item is given and that an abstract allocation is made;

(iii)        that all incidental expenditure that can be foreseen has been provided for in the estimates;

(iv)        that in case of renewal, replacement or dismantlement, credit for released material has been provided for;

(v)         that in the case of work to be done for other government departments, other railways and private bodies, provision has been made for the necessary departmental charges;

(vi)        that in the case of estimates for manufacturing operations the outlay and outturn are distinctly shown; and

(vii)       that in case of estimates for staff-quarters and other rent-returning buildings a rent statement accompanies the estimate.

752. Certificate of Accounts Verification. All estimates verified by the Accounts Officers should bear a certificate of such verification. The form of the certificate may be as under:

"Incidence and allocation verified (subject to the check note attached).

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       This requires the sanction of (.......................................................................").

753. A copy of the estimate as verified by the Accounts Officer, together with a verbatim copy of his check note, if any, should be submitted to the authority competent to sanction the estimate.

754. In forwarding an estimate for sanction it should be clearly mentioned whether it has been accepted by the Accounts Officers as unobjectionable. In case where the Accounts Officer has recorded any objection the attention of the sanctioning authority should be drawn to the Accounts Officer's check note stating the objection.

755. Sanction to Estimates. -Advice of all sanctions to estimates by the competent authority should be communicated to the Accounts Officers and to the Chief Auditor of the railways in such form as may be prescribed by such authorities. A copy of the sanctioned estimate should also be furnished to the Accounts Officer.

756. Currency of Sanction.- The sanction to an estimate will ordinarily remain current for five years from the date on which it has been accorded, unless it has been renewed for a further term by the acceptance of a revised estimate. Acceptance by competent authority, however, of a budget estimate which includes specific provision for expenditure on a work which is in progress, may be regarded as reviving for the year in which provision is made, the sanction to the estimate-regardless of the five years' limit. But if no work has been commenced on a sanctioned scheme within two years of the date on which the sanction was accorded to the estimate, such sanction to be held to have lapsed and fresh sanction should be obtained from the competent authority by the submission of an up-to-date estimate if necessary.

757. The currency of sanction begins from the date of sanction to estimate itself and not from the date on which the allocation of the estimate is finally accepted.

758. Scope of the sanction to an Estimate.- The authority granted by a sanction to an estimate should,on all occasions, be looked upon as strictly limited to the precise objects for which the estimate was intended to provide. Accordingly, any anticipated or actual saving on a sanctioned estimate for definite project should not, without special authority, be applied to carry out additional work not contemplated in the original project or fairly contingent on its actual execution. Saving due to the abandonment of a substantial sanction of any project should not be considered as available for work on other sections.

759. Register of Estimates.- All estimates should, before they are submitted for accounts verification or for the sanction of the competent authorities, be registered in the office of origin. For this purpose a register in the following from should be kept.--

Form No. E. 759

 

.........................................RAILWAY

 

REGISTER OF ESTIMATES

 

Department............................................Office................................................Station...............................

 

S. No.

Estimate No.

Name of work

Plan No.

File No.

Estimated cost

Chargeable to

 

 

 

 

 

 

Capital

D.F.

DRF

OLWR

Ordy. revenue

Deposit

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts verification

Ref. to sanction

Misc. fund

Date of submission to accounts

Date of return after verification

Date of ssubmission to sanctioning to superior authority

Authority sanctioning the estimate

No. & date

Reference to folio in the Register of Work

Remarks as to completion of work

 

 

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

******

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CHAPTER VIII

RULES FOR THE ACQUISITION OF LAND

801. Applicability. The rules contained in this chapter are applicable to all railways in India, whether constructed or worked by Government.

802. How land is acquired. Whenever land which does not already vest in the Central Government is required for railway purposes, it should be taken up under the Land Acquisition Act of 1894 as acquisition under the Act confers an indefeasible title. The more important sections of this Act are reproduced as Appendix II of this Code. L and which is already public property and in which no interests of private persons exist, should not ordinarily form the subject of proceedings under the Land Acquisition Act. Such land should be got transferred to the Central Government as indicated in para 812.

803. Responsibility of Railway Administration. In acquiring land for railway purposes the Railway Administration is responsible for seeing :--

(a)        that it is necessary to acquire the land;

(b)        that the sanction of competent authority exists for the acquisition;

(c)        that if any departure from the rules is contemplated, the specific approval of the Railway Board to such departure has been obtained;

(d)        that the purchase price is reasonable;

(e)        that a proper title to the land acquired is secured and kept, and that it is capable   of accurate identification; and

(f)         that the land is utilized to the best advantage.

804. Necessity for Land. The initial responsibility for ensuring that land is not acquired without a clear necessity therefore rests with the heads of departments concerned in respect of land acquired for their departments. They will be held accountable for the accuracy of the facts on which the justification for acquisition is accepted by the head of the administration.

805. Reasonableness of Price. The ultimate responsibility for seeing that the purchase price is reasonable rests with the General Manager and the Engineering Department of the railway; but so far as the actual valuation of the land is concerned, their chief responsibility lies in obtaining from the local revenue authorities as accurate an estimate as possible of the value before initiating proposals for acquisition.

806. Title to Land. The Engineering Department will be responsible-- (i) for the preparation of the necessary plans and estimates. (ii) for taking possession of the land when required from the revenue authorities, and (iii) for verifying and demarcating its bourdaries and plotting them on the plans.

807. Management of Land.-- The Engineering Department or the department which has custody of the land, is responsible for seeing that it is made use of to the best advantage. In particular, if a portion of the land is not immediately required for the use of the railway, it should be considered whether it can be leased or licensed at a proper rental to outsiders with adequate safeguards for resuming possession as and when required (see also paragraphs 1008 to 1032).

808. Private negotiation, as to the price to be paid, may be entered into either direct with the owner or through an agent, deputy or broker, prior to the initiation of proceedings under the Land Acquisition Act, if thereby, it is considered that appreciable economy would be effected. In such cases, however, an approximate valuation for purposes of comparison, must be obtained from the local revenue authority before any settlement is arrived at. The terms of the settlement should be communicated to the local revenue authority or other officer specially appointed to acquire the land who though not bound to do so will ordinarily accept in his award the price thus agreed upon. The actual acquisition will in all cases be effected under the Land Acquisition Act.

809. In adopting the above procedure, the desirability of which should always be considered in the case of land in the neighbourhood of large cities or other congested areas, it is essential that it should be made clear whether the price agreed upon does, or does not, include the additional 15 per cent for compensation due under Section 23 (2) of the Land Acquisition Act. The terms of settlement should therefore be in the form of an agreement that the owner is willing to sell for a specified amount plus 15 per cent for compensation, the sum of the two being the actual price agreed upon.

810. If an agent or broker is employed, the payment of any fee to him will require the sanction of the Railway Board. Such fee should ordinarily be a fixed amount and not a percentage of the price eventually agreed upon and, if sanctioned and paid, should be treated as part of the cost of acquiring the land.

811. Transfer of Land and Buildings between Union and State Government. The transfer of land and buildings between Union and State Governments are regulated by the provisions of Articles 294, 295, 298 and 299 of the Constitution and subsidiary instructions issued by the Union Government, contained in para 282 and Appendix II of General Financial Rules. From the commencement of the Constitution the transfer of land between Union and State Governments shall be regulated by mutual agreements except when they are acquired under some Act. The amount payable by the Union Government will ordinarily be the market value of the land (see para 812) and buildings if any thereon. The amount payable may include the capitalised value of land revenue when the transfer causes actual loss of land revenue to the State Government and if the State Government cannot be pursuaded to forgo the same Solatium of fifteen per cent payable under the Land Acquisition Act will not apply to such transfer.

812. (a) Market Value. Market value when applied to land may be defined as the price which the land would fetch if sold in the open market subject to the ground rent or assessment shown against it in the revenue registers, or if no ground rent or assessment shown against it in the revenue register, subject to a ground rent or assessment levied at the rate at which ground rent or assessment is actually being levied on similar lands in the neighbourhood excluding all cases in which such similar lands in the neighbourhood are held free of ground rent or assessment at favourable or unfavourable rates of ground rent or assessment.

812. (b) Market value of the building sold to or acquired from other Departments. When Railway buildings are sold/transferred/relinquished to or acquired from the Departments or Central Government/State Governments, the value thereof may be calculated by taking present day reproduction cost less depreciation on straight line method plus cost of land at present day rates.

813. Acquisition of Land in Coal Mining Areas.(1) Land required by the Railways in the Coal Mining areas is usually required under the Land Acquisition (Mines) Act,1885 on the basis of a declaration that the `Mines of Coal, etc. in the area are not needed'. The Land Acquisition (Mines) Act 1885 which now extends to the whole of India except the territories which immediately prior to 1st November, 1956 were comprised in part B states does not provide any statutory safeguards against damage being done to the Railway land and the only way of avoiding damage is to acquire the Mines of Minerals by payment of compensation under section 5 of this Act. The Mines and Minerals (Regulations and Development) Act., 1957, provides for the regulations of mines and the development of minerals under the control of the union, under section 13 of this Act, the Central Government is empowered to make rules in respect of minerals. These rules regulate the grant of prospecting licences and mining leases. Accordingly, the Central Government have made the Minerals Concession Rules, 1960. Under the rule 27 (1) (h) of these rules on the conditions of a mining lease is that the leases shall not carry on or allow to be carried on, any mining operations on any point within a distance of 50 metres from any railway line except under and in accordance with the written permission of the Railway Administration. Further more in view of the application of Coal Mines Regulations 1957, specially Regulation 105, no working can be formed or extraction of pillar can be done or extended to any point with in 45 meters of the Railway land without prior permission in writing from the Chief inspector of Mines, which is given on certain conditions to ensure safety of Railway land. A copy of the application for permission addressed to the Chief Inspector is required to be sent to the Railway Administration.

(2) The payment of compensation under section 5 of the Land Acquisition (Mines) Act can possibly be avoided and at the same time the necessary `underground support' to avoid danger to Railway land be obtained by the Rlys. by negotiating an agreement with the individual Mines owners, where such support is guaranteed in return for loading facilities given on railway sidings and Assisted and Private sidings, Normally, the railway should adopt this method for avoiding payment of compensation and at the same time for obtaining the necessary underground support. But in some cases compensation may have to be paid for coal and minerals which the mine owners are prevented from Mining to safeguard railway property.

(3) Under the Land Acquisition (Mines) Act. 1885 cited above, land can be acquired without the acquisition of mines and minerals. Thus when Government takes over the land for the use of surface only (e. g., railway purposes) it may exclude mines and minerals by specific declaration as contemplated by Section 3 of the said Act. In such an event, the value for acquisition will be only of surface of land and will not include mines and minerals. However, in other than Coal Mining Areas, land is usually acquired under the Land Acquisition Act, 1894. In this Act, the expression `Land' includes benefits arising out of land and things attached to the earth or permanently fastened to anything attached to the earth `Land' thus includes mines and minerals. The Railways can thus acquire subsoil mineral rights by acquiring land under this Act. In such case the owner of coal mines or the adjoining Coal mine (if any) is under a legal obligation not to disturb the right of support in any manner by his underground of the mine and hence has to take at his expense all protective measures workings to prevent and such disturbances taking place.

(4) There might be places, however, where the Land Acquisition (Mines) Act, 1885 does not apply and mineral rights in the land are reserved to the State Governments under the local statutes. In such cases, it might be possible for the Central Government to acquire land as the mineral rights of the State Governments under the Land Acquisition Act, 1894. Where it appears the Central Government that coal is likely to be obtained from the land in any locality. it can acquire either the land or the rights in or over the land under the coal bearing areas (Acquisition and Development). Act, 1957. However, in order to avoid acquisition in such cases, the railway's property should be safeguarded by entering into agreements as suuggested in paragraph (2) above.

(5) Railways have, therefore, the responsibility firstly to ensure underground support from the owners of underground mineral rights and secondly to ensure the frequent inspection that the underground support guaranteed for the railway is correctly maintained. To ensure that these responsibilities are adequately discharged each railway administration should see that all plans for the constructions of new railway lines or assisted or private sidings, in areas close to mines, are signed by the authority nominated by the respective railway for this purpose, i.e., the Chief Mining Adviser, Dhanbad, in the case of E. and S. E. Railways. His services may be utilised by the other railways also, if need be. It shall be the duty of this authority before approving these plans, to ensure that the alignment is safe and involves the locking up of the minimum quantity of coal and minerals.

814. Rights to mines and minerals in areas acquired by or on behalf of the Central Government. The expression `Land' includes legal parlance all that is under it. Acquisition of land under Land Acquisition Act 1894 by the Central Government would include acquisition of mines and minerals under the land acquired unless a statement as contemplated by section 3(1) of Land Acquisition (Mine) Act 1885 is included in the declaration under Section 6 of Land Acquisition Act 1894. If the mines and minerals under the land acquired belong to the State Government, the State Government is entitled to claim compensation when land is acquired without such declaration. Where State Government lands are not acquired under Land Acquisition Act, but are acquired through private negotiations from the State Government, specific provision for mineral rights may be made in the transfer deed to avoid any possibility of payment of royalty to State Government.

815. Riparian Rights. State Governments are competent to levy royalty on the water drawn by Railways from the rivers and other natural sources and also enhance the same unless the Railways enjoy riparian rights in respect of such water. A riparian land includes only that land which is substantially adjacent to the stream. All uses are riparian in which the water is consumed on the riparian land and that all uses are non-riparian in which the water is taken away from riparian land to be applied for use for any purpose elsewhere. It will be a question of fact in each case whether land is actually riparian.

816. Occupation of Land, Temporary and Permanent. All land for railway purposes, whether acquired temporarily or permanently, will ordinarily be taken up in the first instance as for permanent occupation and valued accordingly. In special circumstances, however, where land is needed for temporary purposes and where there is little likelihood of the land on the expiration of the term of temporary occupation being rendered unfit to be used for the purpose for which it had been utilized immediately before such occupation, temporary acquisition may be undertaken under Section 35 of the Land Acquisition Act, provided that such procedure would result in economy. Waste or arrable land can be occupied temporarily only for a period not exceeding three years from the commencement of occupation, vide Section 35 (I) of the Land Acquisition Act.

817. Classification of Railway Land. With a view to determine what the disposition of the land will probably be on the completion of the work for which it had been acquired, the classification given in paragraph 818 etc. should be adopted.

818. On railways, land is divided into two classes, viz.,

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819. Permanent land is land which will be required permanently after the railway is open for traffic and the work of construction is complete. Under this head will be included all land to be occupied by the formation of the permanent line of railway with side slopes of banks and cuttings, and the berms connected therewith; catchwater drains and borrow pits or such parts of them as it is necessary to retain; the entrances to tunnels and shafts belonging to them; the sites of bridges, and protection or training works; station yards; landing places for railway ferries; ground to be occupied by works belonging to the railway such as gas works, arrangements for water supply, septic tanks, collecting pits, filter beds and pumping installations, & c., ground for the storage manufacture or acquisition of materials; land for sanitary zones, cemeteries, churches, plantations; gardens, and recreation grounds, sites for stations, offices, workshops; dwelling houses and other buildings required for the purposes of the railway, or the accommodation of the staff, with the grounds, yards, roads, & c., appertaining thereto. Under this head will also be included land outside the permanent railway boundary, which will be required for the permanent diversion of roads or rivers, or for other works incidental to the construction of the railway, which are made for public purposes and will not on completion of the works be maintained by the railway authorities.

820. Temporary land is land which is acquired for temporary purposes only, and which is disposed of after the work of construction is completed.

821. Extent of land to be acquired. In estimating for the extent of land to be taken up for a railway, care should be taken to make provision not only for the land which will be required permanently for the purposes of the open lines (such as those indicated in paragraph 819 on "Permanent Land"), but also for such land as will be required during construction only, for spoil-banks, side-cuttings, quarries, stacking and preparation of material, temporary offices, workshops and quarters, and for temporary purposes generally, to be disposed of after the work is complete.

822. (a) For lines over which traffic is likely to develop beyond the carrying capacity of a single line within 15 years after opening, the widths of land to be taken up should be those for a double line.

(b) For lines on which the traffic cannot reasonably be expected to grow beyond the carrying capacity of a single line within 15 years of opening, the widths of land to be acquired should be those for a single line.

(c) The minimum widths of land to be taken up for a single line should be, under ordinary circumstances, those shown in the sections and tables, printed as Appendix III. The Railway Administration can reduce the requirement of land in urban areas or where the cost of land is expensive (refer para 829). The extent of permanent land will depend upon how many, if any, of the borrow pits are to be retained after construction is completed.

(d) The orders of the Railway Board should be obtained before reckoning widths on basis (a).

823. At station yards the cutting or filling for the formation of the main line and sidings may sometimes be arranged for in the general levelling and improvement of the plot of ground to be permanently acquired. Where this cannot be done, provision should be made outside the proposed boundary of the station yard for such additional land as may be required for side cuttings or spoil banks. In the case of station yards within or in the vicinity of large towns or other inhabited area, it is desirable in the interest of sanitation that excavations, which are likely to prove noxious, should as far as possible, be avoided or so arranged as to drain off completely. Special care should be taken to ensure that sufficient land is taken up at stations. This land should be provided for any reasonable extensions of the yard which may be expected in the future.

824. In making provision for land for side-cuttings, the width will, under ordinary circumstances, depend upon the nature of the soil, height of bank, facilities for getting earth and other local conditions. Under special circumstances, as for example, in the neighbourhood of large towns or where land is expensive, it may be advisable to equalize the quantities for cutting and filling, and take, the material for banks from the adjacent cuttings.

825. After a line has been opened, it is necessary to have land from which earth can be dug for repairs to banks and such land should always be acquired permanently.

826. It would not be economical to reserve land for all repairs between the bank and the original borrow-pits, because doing so would increase the lead and consequently the cost of all earth dug for construction of banks, but it is desirable to have a certain width of land from which earth can be dug for emergent repairs during or immediately after the monsoon when the borrow-pits may be full of water. Pits dug for such urgent repairs, inside the line of original borrow-pits, should not be more than 1 metre in depth and the width of land for such pits may be taken as equal to the height of bank.

827. The width of berm to be originally set out will therefore be 3 metres plus width required for urgent repairs (height of bank). Provision has been made on this basis in the Tables in Appendix III.

828. For 762 mm gauge lines in mountainous country special arrangements for acquisition of land for borrow-pits to provide earth for construction and maintenance should be made.

General Arrangement, side-widths, & c.

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829. For the line between stations, the general arrangements for land shown in the sections in Appendix III should be followed. The width of temporary land to be acquired for borrow-pits or spoil-banks cannot be laid down, as these depend on (1) nature of soil; (2) depth of sub-soil water; (3) price of land; and (4) other local considerations. But for ordinary open country, where land is not unduly expensive and excavation to a depth of 2 metres is not undesirable owing to hard soil or subsoil water met with, the widths shown in the Tables in Appendix III will be found suitable for banks of 2 to 1 slope. An appreciable decrease in the area of land to be taken up can be effected by the adoption of greater depths for borrow-pits. It is, therefore, left to the discretion of Railway Administrations to adopt such depths with the consequent decrease in the width of borrow-pits as they consider practicable. For new lines and doublings the acquisition of agricultural lands should be limited to the bare minimum area to be acquired need not conform to the arrangement given in Appendix III and the possibility of bringing borrow earth from elsewhere within reasonable distance or by making deeper borrow pits and in special cases even reducing the width of berms on either side of the embankment should be borne in mind.

830. Where practicable, for low banks or shallow cuttings, the land taken up for side-cutting or spoil banks should be on one side of the line only (see tables in Appendix III).

831. In setting out land for side-cuttings, arrangements should be made for berms at suitable intervals to allow of convenient access to the line during construction and to prevent the side cuttings ultimately developing into water courses alongside the embankment. Width of 6 metres in a length of 60 metres is generally suitable for this purpose; that is to say, each excavation would be 54 metres long and separated from the next excavation by an interval of 6 metres of undisturbed earth. The tables in Appendix III are calculated on the above dimensions.

832. In setting out land for spoil banks, care should be taken to leave sufficient space for arrangements for drainage and for catch-water drains, where required, to prevent surface water from the adjacent land running down the slope of the cutting Land required for catch-water drains outside the line of spoil-bank will be additional to that shown in the tables in Appendix III.

833. The sides of spoil-banks and side-cuttings next the line should be slopped off (as shown in the sections, in Appendix III) before the earth-work is finished and in setting out side-widths the distance allowed to the nearest part of the excavation or spoil bank should be such as to preserve the specified width of strip of clear unbroken ground after this sloping has been carried out.

834. The slopes of sides of borrow-pits nearest the line should be the same as the slope adopted for embankments and this will generally be 2 to 1. The slopes of the outer side and of ends may be 1 to 1. The slopes of spoil bank should usually be 2 to 1. A convenient height for spoil bank is 1.5 metres and this has been adopted for the tables in Appendix III.

835. In taking up land for embankments a strip one metre width has been allowed for outside. The outer edge of borrow pits to enable the fence to be erected outside the borrow pits if required. Where the line is in cutting, the fence can be erected, if required, at the outer toe of spoil banks and such strip is required.

836. In arranging the side-widths, the line for the fencing and for the inner edge of side cutting or spoil-bank should be continued straight in portions as long as practicable. This is to say, these lines should follow the average variation in height of bank or depth of cutting over considerable lengths and not be made to zig-zag to suit the local variation at each chain e. g. Where the variation in side-widths would be comparatively unimportant it will often be advisable to neglect such local variations entirely, and take up the land in a parallel strip for some distance.

Land Plans and Schedules

837. To enable the revenue authorities to take action for the acquisition of land required for railway purposes, it is necessary that proper plans should be made for reference by all concerned. The scale for these land plans should under ordinary circumstances, be 50 metres to cm. but where this would not admit of sufficient details being shown with clearness, the scale should be 10 metres to cm. A scale of 5 metres to cm. may, however, be issued in special cases for congested areas in large towns.

Note. (a) This rule may be waived when the land to be acquired forms an addition to that already previously acquired. In such cases the plans showing additions may be drawn to the same scale as the original plans.

(b) In cases where the existing Revenue maps are not on a smaller scale than 50 metres to a cm. they may, with the consent of the State Government, be used for the preparation of land plans. Where, however, the State Governments have prescribed separate scales for plans and sections in respect of acquisition of land for railway projects, such scales should be adopted.

838. The data for the preparation of land plans should generally be obtained during the progress of the survey for the location of the line, and general instructions for the preparation of plans to accompany a project for a railway should be held to apply also to plans required for the acquisition of the land necessary for the construction of the railway (cf. paragraph 443 et seq.). The land plans should also give the additional information required under paragraphs 839 to 841 below.

839. The plans made out for the first acquisition of land should show the outer boundary line and all land for whatever purposes it may be required, should be taken up as for permanent occupation. This land should be distinguished on the land plans by being coloured pink. This rule applies only to copies of the plans made for the Revenue Authorities for use in the acquisition of land and is not intended to prevent Engineers from marking on their office copies the intended disposition of the land as "permanent" and "temporary" or any other information which may be found convenient for use during construction, or for the purpose of estimate.

840. As early as practicable, after the line is opened and after it is known definitely what land can conveniently be spared and disposed of, the original plans should be corrected (or fresh plans made) to show the boundaries of the land required for permanent occupation (`permanent land'). and also those of the land to be disposed of (`temporary land'). On these land plans, the two classes of land are to be distinguished by colour as follows:

841. As early as practicable, after the line is opened, the original plan should be corrected (for fresh plans made) to show the disposition of land as determined after the work of construction is completed. Detached portions of land should be referred to some fixed point on one of the main sheets with distance and compass or other bearings, or such reference to the published maps neighbourhood as will ensure a ready identification of the land. A corresponding entry should in each case be made on the nearest main sheet to draw attention to the detached plot.

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842. On all land plans, the position of the boundary of each class of land should be determined by dimension written on the plan, these dimensions should be sufficiently complete to enable such boundaries being, at any time, readily ascertained or verified.

843. The names of villages to which the land belongs, should in each case, be written on the plan alongside of the line indicating the village boundary . If the boundary line crosses the railway line the names should be repeated on the other side of the railway line and the chainage of the crossing point noted.

844. When boundary marks have been erected for the demarcation of railway land, the position and corresponding number of every detached mark should be inserted in the land plans.

845. The plans should in short be full and complete and should show all existing roads and building, and when the latter are known to be used for public purposes or by special departments, their purposes and ownership should be stated.

846. The land plans should be made up in sets for continuous portions of land, each set being complete for a revenue district or charge of a Collector or Deputy Commissioner. On each end sheet (first and last) of every set of land plans, a sufficient portion of the continuation sheet of the next set should be repeated, to enable the two sheets to be connected or traced together if required. For each set of land plans the sheets should be numbered consecutively through-out and the name of the revenue district to which the set relates, is to be marked conspicuously on each sheet.

847. The schedules showing details of the land required may be drawn up in the forms numbered 1 to 3 printed as Appendix IV but these are not prescribed as standard forms for adoption on all railways, as it is recognized that land tenures vary in different parts of India and that each State Government or Administration may desire land schedules to be prepared in a form and with particulars to suits local conditions and local land revenue procedure. Railway Administration should, therefore, prepare the land schedules in the forms that may be req